The Vatsyayana sutra.
Salutation to dharma, Artha and
In the beginning, the Lord of Beings
created men and women, and in the form of commandments
in one hundred thousand chapters laid down rules for
regulating their existence with regard to Dharma,
Artha, and Kama. Some of these commandments,
namely those which treated of Dharma, were separately
written by Swayambhu Manu; those that related to Artha
were compiled by Brihaspati; and those that referred
to Kama were expounded by Nandi, the follower of Mahadeva,
in one thousand chapters.
Now these ‘Kama Sutra’
(Aphorisms on Love), written by Nandi in one thousand
chapters, were reproduced by Shvetaketu, the son of
Uddvalaka, in an abbreviated form in five hundred
chapters, and this work was again similarly reproduced
in an abridged form, in one hundred and fifty chapters,
by Babhravya, an inhabitant of the Punchala (South
of Delhi) country. These one hundred and fifty
chapters were then put together under seven heads
or parts named severally
1st. Sadharana (general topics).
2nd. Samprayogika (embraces, etc.).
3rd. Kanya Samprayuktaka (union of males and
4th. Bharyadhikarika (on one’s own wife).
5th. Paradika (on the wives of other people).
6th. Vaisika (on courtesans).
7th. Aupamishadika (on the arts
of seduction, tonic medicines, etc.).
The sixth part of this last work was
separately expounded by Dattaka at the request of
the public women of Pataliputra (Patna), and in the
same way Charayana explained the first part of it.
The remaining parts, viz., the second, third,
fourth, fifth, and seventh were each separately expounded
Suvarnanabha (second part).
Ghotakamukha (third part).
Gonardiya (fourth part).
Gonikaputra (fifth part).
Kuchumara (seventh part), respectively.
Thus the work being written in parts
by different authors was almost unobtainable, and
as the parts which were expounded by Dattaka and the
others treated only of the particular branches of the
subject to which each part related, and moreover as
the original work of Babhravya was difficult to be
mastered on account of its length, Vatsyayana, therefore,
composed his work in a small volume as an abstract
of the whole of the works of the above-named authors.
These three words are retained throughout
in their original, as technical terms. They may
also be defined as virtue, wealth and pleasure, the
three things repeatedly spoken of in the Laws of Manu.]
On the acquisition of dharma, Artha and Kama.
Man, the period of whose life is one
hundred years, should practise Dharma, Artha, and
Kama at different times and in such a manner that
they may harmonize together and not clash in any way.
He should acquire learning in his childhood, in his
youth and middle age he should attend to Artha and
Kama, and in his old age he should perform Dharma,
and thus seek to gain Moksha, i.e., release
from further transmigration. Or, on account of
the uncertainty of life, he may practise them at times
when they are enjoined to be practised. But one
thing is to be noted, he should lead the life of a
religious student until he finishes his education.
Dharma is obedience to the
command of the Shastra or Holy Writ of the Hindoos
to do certain things, such as the performance of sacrifices,
which are not generally done because they do not belong
to this world, and produce no visible effect; and
not to do other things, such as eating meat, which
is often done because it belongs to this world, and
has visible effects.
Dharma should be learnt from the Shruti
(Holy Writ), and from those conversant with it.
Artha is the acquisition of
arts, land, gold, cattle, wealth, équipages and
friends. It is, further, the protection of what
is acquired, and the increase of what is protected.
Artha should be learnt from the king’s
officers, and from merchants who may be versed in
the ways of commerce.
Kama is the enjoyment of appropriate
objects by the five senses of hearing, feeling, seeing,
tasting, and smelling, assisted by the mind together
with the soul. The ingredient in this is a peculiar
contact between the organ of sense and its object,
and the consciousness of pleasure which arises from
that contact is called Kama.
Kama is to be learnt from the Kama
Sutra (aphorisms on love) and from the practice of
When all the three, viz., Dharma,
Artha, and Kama come together, the former is better
than the one which follows it, i.e., Dharma
is better than Artha, and Artha is better than Kama.
But Artha should be always first practised by the
king, for the livelihood of men is to be obtained
from it only. Again, Kama being the occupation
of public women, they should prefer it to the other
two, and these are exceptions to the general rule.
Some learned men say that as Dharma
is connected with things not belonging to this world,
it is appropriately treated of in a book; and so also
is Artha, because it is practised only by the application
of proper means, and a knowledge of those means can
only be obtained by study and from books. But
Kama being a thing which is practised even by the
brute creation, and which is to be found everywhere,
does not want any work on the subject.
This is not so. Sexual intercourse
being a thing dependent on man and woman requires
the application of proper means by them, and those
means are to be learnt from the Kama Shastra.
The non-application of proper means, which we see
in the brute creation, is caused by their being unrestrained,
and by the females among them only being fit for sexual
intercourse at certain seasons and no more, and by
their intercourse not being preceded by thought of
The Lokayatikas say: Religious
ordinances should not be observed, for they bear a
future fruit, and at the same time it is also doubtful
whether they will bear any fruit at all. What
foolish person will give away that which is in his
own hands into the hands of another? Moreover,
it is better to have a pigeon to-day than a peacock
to-morrow; and a copper coin which we have the certainty
of obtaining, is better than a gold coin, the possession
of which is doubtful.
It is not sst. Holy Writ,
which ordains the practice of Dharma, does not admit
of a doubt.
2nd. Sacrifices such as those
made for the destruction of enemies, or for the fall
of rain, are seen to bear fruit.
3rd. The sun, moon, stars, planets
and other heavenly bodies appear to work intentionally
for the good of the world.
4th. The existence of this world
is effected by the observance of the rules respecting
the four classes of men and their four stages of
5th. We see that seed is thrown
into the ground with the hope of future crops.
Vatsyayana is therefore of opinion
that the ordinances of religion must be obeyed.
Those who believe that destiny is
the prime mover of all things say: We should
not exert ourselves to acquire wealth, for sometimes
it is not acquired although we strive to get it, while
at other times it comes to us of itself without any
exertion on our part. Everything is therefore
in the power of destiny, who is the lord of gain and
loss, of success and defeat, of pleasure and pain.
Thus we see the Bali was raised to the throne of
Indra by destiny, and was also put down by the same
power, and it is destiny only that can re-instate
It is not right to say so. As
the acquisition of every object pre-supposes at all
events some exertion on the part of man, the application
of proper means may be said to be the cause of gaining
all our ends, and this application of proper means
being thus necessary (even where a thing is destined
to happen), it follows that a person who does nothing
will enjoy no happiness.
Those who are inclined to think that
Artha is the chief object to be obtained argue thus.
Pleasures should not be sought for, because they are
obstacles to the practice of Dharma and Artha, which
are both superior to them, and are also disliked by
meritorious persons. Pleasures also bring a man
into distress, and into contact with low persons;
they cause him to commit unrighteous deeds, and produce
impurity in him; they make him regardless of the future,
and encourage carelessness and levity. And lastly,
they cause him to be disbelieved by all, received
by none, and despised by everybody, including himself.
It is notorious, moreover, that many men who have
given themselves up to pleasure alone, have been ruined
along with their families and relations. Thus,
King Dandakya, of the Bhoja dynasty, carried off
a Brahman’s daughter with evil intent, and was
eventually ruined and lost his kingdom. Indra,
too, having violated the chastity of Ahalya, was
made to suffer for it. In a like manner the mighty
Kichaka, who tried to seduce Draupadi, and Ravana,
who attempted to gain over Sita, were punished for
their crimes. These and many others fell by reason
of their pleasures.
This objection cannot be sustained,
for pleasures, being as necessary for the existence
and well being of the body as food, are consequently
equally required. They are, moreover, the results
of Dharma and Artha. Pleasures are, therefore,
to be followed with moderation and caution. No
one refrains from cooking food because there are beggars
to ask for it, or from sowing seed because there are
deer to destroy the corn when it is grown up.
Thus a man practising Dharma, Artha
and Kama enjoys happiness both in this world and in
the world to come. The good perform those actions
in which there is no fear as to what is to result
from them in the next world, and in which there is
no danger to their welfare. Any action which
conduces to the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama
together, or of any two, or even one of them, should
be performed, but an action which conduces to the
practice of one of them at the expense of the remaining
two should not be performed.
ON THE ARTS AND SCIENCES TO BE STUDIED.
Man should study the Kama Sutra and
the arts and sciences subordinate thereto, in addition
to the study of the arts and sciences contained in
Dharma and Artha. Even young maids should study
this Kama Sutra along with its arts and sciences before
marriage, and after it they should continue to do
so with the consent of their husbands.
Here some learned men object, and
say that females, not being allowed to study any science,
should not study the Kama Sutra.
But Vatsyayana is of opinion that
this objection does not hold good, for women already
know the practice of Kama Sutra, and that practice
is derived from the Kama Shastra, or the science of
Kama itself. Moreover, it is not only in this
but in many other cases that though the practice of
a science is known to all, only a few persons are acquainted
with the rules and laws on which the science is based.
Thus the Yadnikas or sacrificers, though ignorant
of grammar, make use of appropriate words when addressing
the different Deities, and do not know how these words
are framed. Again, persons do the duties required
of them on auspicious days, which are fixed by astrology,
though they are not acquainted with the science of
astrology. In a like manner riders of horses and
elephants train these animals without knowing the science
of training animals, but from practice only.
And similarly the people of the most distant provinces
obey the laws of the kingdom from practice, and because
there is a king over them, and without further reason.
And from experience we find that some women, such
as daughters of princes and their ministers, and public
women, are actually versed in the Kama Shastra.
A female, therefore, should learn
the Kama Shastra, or at least a part of it, by studying
its practice from some confidential friend. She
should study alone in private the sixty-four practices
that form a part of the Kama Shastra. Her teacher
should be one of the following persons, viz.,
the daughter of a nurse brought up with her and already
married, or a female friend who can be trusted
in everything, or the sister of her mother (i.e.,
her aunt), or an old female servant, or a female beggar
who may have formerly lived in the family, or her own
sister, who can always be trusted.
The following are the arts to be studied,
together with the Kama Sutra:
2. Playing on musical instruments.
4. Union of dancing, singing,
and playing instrumental music.
5. Writing and drawing.
7. Arraying and adorning an idol with rice and
8. Spreading and arraying beds
or couches of flowers, or flowers upon the ground.
9. Colouring the teeth, garments,
hair, nails, and bodies, i.e., staining, dyeing,
colouring and painting the same.
10. Fixing stained glass into a floor.
11. The art of making beds, and
spreading out carpets and cushions for reclining.
12. Playing on musical glasses filled with water.
13. Storing and accumulating
water in aqueducts, cisterns and reservoirs.
14. Picture making, trimming and decorating.
15. Stringing of rosaries, necklaces,
garlands and wreaths.
16. Binding of turbans and chaplets,
and making crests and top-knots of flowers.
17. Scenic representations. Stage playing.
18. Art of making ear ornaments.
19. Art of preparing perfumes and odours.
20. Proper disposition of jewels
and decorations, and adornment in dress.
21. Magic or sorcery.
22. Quickness of hand or manual skill.
23. Culinary art, i.e., cooking and cookery.
24. Making lemonades, sherbets,
acidulated drinks, and spirituous extracts with proper
flavour and colour.
25. Tailor’s work and sewing.
26. Making parrots, flowers,
tufts, tassels, bunches, bosses, knobs, &c., out of
yarn or thread.
27. Solution of riddles, enigmas,
covert speeches, verbal puzzles and enigmatical questions.
28. A game, which consisted in
repeating verses, and as one person finished, another
person had to commence at once, repeating another
verse, beginning with the same letter with which the
last speaker’s verse ended, whoever failed to
repeat was considered to have lost, and to be subject
to pay a forfeit or stake of some kind.
29. The art of mimicry or imitation.
30. Reading, including chanting and intoning.
31. Study of sentences difficult
to pronounce. It is played as a game chiefly
by women and children, and consists of a difficult
sentence being given, and when repeated quickly, the
words are often transposed or badly pronounced.
32. Practice with sword, single
stick, quarter staff, and bow and arrow.
33. Drawing inferences, reasoning or inferring.
34. Carpentry, or the work of a carpenter.
35. Architecture, or the art of building.
36. Knowledge about gold and
silver coins, and jewels and gems.
37. Chemistry and mineralogy.
38. Colouring jewels, gems and beads.
39. Knowledge of mines and quarries.
40. Gardening; knowledge of treating
the diseases of trees and plants, of nourishing them,
and determining their ages.
41. Art of cock fighting, quail
fighting and ram fighting.
42. Art of teaching parrots and starlings to
43. Art of applying perfumed
ointments to the body, and of dressing the hair with
unguents and perfumes and braiding it.
44. The art of understanding
writing in cypher, and the writing of words in a peculiar
45. The art of speaking by changing
the forms of words. It is of various kinds.
Some speak by changing the beginning and end of words,
others by adding unnecessary letters between every
syllable of a word, and so on.
46. Knowledge of language and of the vernacular
47. Art of making flower carriages.
48. Art of framing mystical diagrams,
of addressing spells and charms, and binding armlets.
49. Mental exercises, such as
completing stanzas or verses on receiving a part of
them; or supplying one, two or three lines when the
remaining lines are given indiscriminately from different
verses, so as to make the whole an entire verse with
regard to its meaning; or arranging the words of a
verse written irregularly by separating the vowels
from the consonants, or leaving them out altogether;
or putting into verse or prose sentences represented
by signs or symbols. There are many other such
50. Composing poems.
51. Knowledge of dictionaries and vocabularies.
52. Knowledge of ways of changing
and disguising the appearance of persons.
53. Knowledge of the art of changing
the appearance of things, such as making cotton to
appear as silk, coarse and common things to appear
as fine and good.
54. Various ways of gambling.
55. Art of obtaining possession
of the property of others by means of muntras or incantations.
56. Skill in youthful sports.
57. Knowledge of the rules of
society, and of how to pay respects and compliments
58. Knowledge of the art of war, of arms, of
59. Knowledge of gymnastics.
60. Art of knowing the character
of a man from his features.
61. Knowledge of scanning or constructing verses.
62. Arithmetical recreations.
63. Making artificial flowers.
64. Making figures and images in clay.
A public woman, endowed with a good
disposition, beauty and other winning qualities, and
also versed in the above arts, obtains the name of
a Ganika, or public woman of high quality, and receives
a seat of honour in an assemblage of men. She
is, moreover, always respected by the king, and praised
by learned men, and her favour being sought for by
all, she becomes an object of universal regard.
The daughter of a king too, as well as the daughter
of a minister, being learned in the above arts, can
make their husbands favourable to them, even though
these may have thousands of other wives besides themselves.
And in the same manner, if a wife becomes separated
from her husband, and falls into distress, she can
support herself easily, even in a foreign country,
by means of her knowledge of these arts. Even
the bare knowledge of them gives attractiveness to
a woman, though the practice of them may be only possible
or otherwise according to the circumstances of each
case. A man who is versed in these arts, who
is loquacious and acquainted with the arts of gallantry,
gains very soon the hearts of women, even though he
is only acquainted with them for a short time.
THE LIFE OF A CITIZEN.
Having thus acquired learning, a man,
with the wealth that he may have gained by gift, conquest,
purchase, deposit, or inheritance from his ancestors,
should become a householder, and pass the life of a
citizen. He should take a house in a city, or
large village, or in the vicinity of good men, or
in a place which is the resort of many persons.
This abode should be situated near some water, and
divided into different compartments for different
purposes. It should be surrounded by a garden,
and also contain two rooms, an outer and an inner one.
The inner room should be occupied by the females,
while the outer room, balmy with rich perfumes, should
contain a bed, soft, agreeable to the sight covered
with a clean white cloth, low in the middle part, having
garlands and bunches of flowers upon it, and a
canopy above it, and two pillows, one at the top,
another at the bottom. There should be also a
sort of couch besides, and at the head of this a sort
of stool, on which should be placed the fragrant ointments
for the night, as well as flowers, pots containing
collyrium and other fragrant substances, things
used for perfuming the mouth, and the bark of the common
citron tree. Near the couch, on the ground, there
should be a pot for spitting, a box containing ornaments,
and also a lute hanging from a peg made of the tooth
of an elephant, a board for drawing, a pot containing
perfume, some books, and some garlands of the yellow
amaranth flowers. Not far from the couch, and
on the ground, there should be a round seat, a toy
cart, and a board for playing with dice; outside the
outer room there should be cages of birds, and
a separate place for spinning, carving, and such like
diversions. In the garden there should be a whirling
swing and a common swing, as also a bower of creepers
covered with flowers, in which a raised parterre should
be made for sitting.
Now the householder having got up
in the morning and performed his necessary duties,
should wash his teeth, apply a limited quantity of
ointments and perfumes to his body, put some ornaments
on his person and collyrium on his eyelids and
below his eyes, colour his lips with alacktaka,
and look at himself in the glass. Having then
eaten betel leaves, with other things that give fragrance
to the mouth, he should perform his usual business.
He should bathe daily, anoint his body with oil every
other day, apply a lathering substance to his body
every three days, get his head (including face) shaved
every four days, and the other parts of his body every
five or ten days. All these things should be done
without fail, and the sweat of the armpits should also
be removed. Meals should be taken in the forenoon,
in the afternoon, and again at night, according to
Charayana. After breakfast, parrots and other
birds should be taught to speak, and the fighting of
cocks, quails, and rams should follow. A limited
time should be devoted to diversions with Pithamardas,
Vitas, and Vidushakas, and then should be taken
the midday sleep. After this the householder, having
put on his clothes and ornaments, should, during the
afternoon, converse with his friends. In the
evening there should be singing, and after that the
householder, along with his friend, should await in
his room, previously decorated and perfumed, the arrival
of the woman that may be attached to him, or he may
send a female messenger for her, or go for her himself.
After her arrival at his house, he and his friend should
welcome her, and entertain her with a loving and agreeable
conversation. Thus end the duties of the day.
The following are the things to be
done occasionally as diversions or amusements.
1. Holding festivals in honour of different
2. Social gatherings of both sexes.
3. Drinking parties.
5. Other social diversions.
On some particular auspicious day,
an assembly of citizens should be convened in the
temple of Saraswati. There the skill of singers,
and of others who may have come recently to the town,
should be tested, and on the following day they should
always be given some rewards. After that they
may either be retained or dismissed, according as their
performances are liked or not by the assembly.
The members of the assembly should act in concert,
both in times of distress as well as in times of prosperity,
and it is also the duty of these citizens to show
hospitality to strangers who may have come to the assembly.
What is said above should be understood to apply to
all the other festivals which may be held in honour
of the different Deities, according to the present
When men of the same age, disposition
and talents, fond of the same diversions and with
the same degree of education, sit together in company
with public women, or in an assembly of citizens,
or at the abode of one among themselves, and engage
in agreeable discourse with each other, such is called
a sitting in company or a social gathering. The
subjects of discourse are to be the completion of verses
half composed by others, and the testing the knowledge
of one another in the various arts. The women
who may be the most beautiful, who may like the same
things that the men like, and who may have power to
attract the minds of others, are here done homage
Men and women should drink in one
another’s houses. And here the men should
cause the public women to drink, and should then drink
themselves, liquors such as the Madhu, Aireya, Sara,
and Asawa, which are of bitter and sour taste; also
drinks concocted from the barks of various trees,
wild fruits and leaves.
Going to Gardens or Picnics.
In the forenoon, men, having dressed
themselves should go to gardens on horseback, accompanied
by public women and followed by servants. And
having done there all the duties of the day, and passed
the time in various agreeable diversions, such as
the fighting of quails, cocks and rams, and other
spectacles, they should return home in the afternoon
in the same manner, bringing with them bunches of
The same also applies to bathing in
summer in water from which wicked or dangerous animals
have previously been taken out, and which has been
built in on all sides.
Other Social Diversions.
Spending nights playing with dice.
Going out on moonlight nights. Keeping the festive
day in honour of spring. Plucking the sprouts
and fruits of the mangoe trees. Eating the fibres
of lotuses. Eating the tender ears of corn.
Picnicing in the forests when the trees get their
new foliage. The Udakakashvedika or sporting in
the water. Decorating each other with the flowers
of some trees. Pelting each other with the flowers
of the Kadamba tree, and many other sports which may
either be known to the whole country, or may be peculiar
to particular parts of it. These and similar
other amusements should always be carried on by citizens.
The above amusements should be followed
by a person who diverts himself alone in company with
a courtesan, as well as by a courtesan who can do
the same in company with her maid servants or with
A Pithamarda is a man without
wealth, alone in the world, whose only property consists
of his Mallika, some lathering, substance and a
red cloth, who comes from a good country, and who is
skilled in all the arts; and by teaching these arts
is received in the company of citizens, and in the
abode of public women.
A Vita is a man who has enjoyed
the pleasures of fortune, who is a compatriot of the
citizens with whom he associates, who is possessed
of the qualities of a householder, who has his wife
with him, and who is honoured in the assembly of citizens,
and in the abodes of public women, and lives on their
means and on them.
A Vidushaka (also called a Vaihasaka,
i.e., one who provokes laughter) is a person
only acquainted with some of the arts who is a jester,
and who is trusted by all.
These persons are employed in matters
of quarrels and reconciliations between citizens and
This remark applies also to female
beggars, to women with their heads shaved, to adulterous
women, and to old public women skilled in all the
Thus a citizen living in his town
or village, respected by all, should call on the persons
of his own caste who may be worth knowing. He
should converse in company and gratify his friends
by his society, and obliging others by his assistance
in various matters, he should cause them to assist
one another in the same way.
There are some verses on this subject as follows:
A citizen discoursing, not entirely
in the Sanscrit language, nor wholly in the dialects
of the country, on various topics in society, obtains
great respect. The wise should not resort to a
society disliked by the public, governed by no rules,
and intent on the destruction of others. But
a learned man living in a society which acts according
to the wishes of the people, and which has pleasure
for its only object is highly respected in this world.
ABOUT THE KINDS OF WOMEN RESORTED
TO BY THE CITIZENS, AND OF FRIENDS AND MESSENGERS.
When Kama is practised by men of the
four castes according to the rules of the Holy Writ
(i.e., by lawful marriage) with virgins of their
own caste, it then becomes a means of acquiring lawful
progeny and good fame, and it is not also opposed
to the customs of the world. On the contrary
the practice of Kama with women of the higher castes,
and with those previously enjoyed by others, even
though they be of the same caste, is prohibited.
But the practice of Kama with women of the lower castes,
with women excommunicated from their own caste, with
public women, and with women twice married, is
neither enjoined nor prohibited. The object of
practising Kama with such women is pleasure only.
Nayikas, therefore, are of three
kinds, viz., maids, women twice married, and
public women. Gonikaputra has expressed an opinion
that there is a fourth kind of Nayika, viz.,
a woman who is resorted to on some special occasion
even though she be previously married to another.
These special occasions are when a man thinks thus:
(a). This woman is
self-willed, and has been previously enjoyed
by many others besides myself.
I may, therefore, safely
resort to her as to a public woman though
she belongs to a
higher caste than mine, and in so doing
I shall not be
violating the ordinances of
(b). This is a twice-married
woman and has been enjoyed by others
before me, there is, therefore, no objection
resorting to her.
(c). This woman has
gained the heart of her great and powerful
husband, and exercises a mastery over
him, who is a friend
of my enemy; if, therefore, she becomes
united with me,
she will cause her husband to abandon
(d). This woman will
turn the mind of her husband, who is very
powerful, in my favour, he being at
towards me, and intent on doing me some
(e). By making this
woman my friend I shall gain the object of
some friend of mine, or shall be able
to effect the ruin
of some enemy, or shall accomplish some
(f). By being united
with this woman, I shall kill her husband,
and so obtain his vast riches which
(g). The union of
this woman with me is not attended with any
danger, and will bring me wealth, of
which, on account of
my poverty and inability to support
myself, I am very much
in need. I shall, therefore, obtain
her vast riches in
this way without any difficulty.
(h). This woman loves
me ardently, and knows all my weak points,
if therefore, I am unwilling to be united
with her, she
will make my faults public, and thus
tarnish my character
and reputation. Or she will bring
some gross accusation
against me, of which it may be hard
to clear myself, and I
shall be ruined. Or perhaps she
will detach from me her
husband, who is powerful, and yet under
her control, and
will unite him to my enemy, or will
herself join the latter.
(i). The husband of
this woman has violated the chastity of my
wives, I shall therefore return that
injury by seducing
(j). By the help of
this woman I shall kill an enemy of the king,
who has taken shelter with her, and
whom I am ordered by
the king to destroy.
(k). The woman whom
I love is under the control of this woman. I
shall, through the influence of the
latter, be able to get
at the former.
(l). This woman will
bring to me a maid, who possesses wealth and
beauty, but who is hard to get at, and
under the control
Or, lastly, thus:
(m). My enemy is a
friend of this woman’s husband, I shall
therefore cause her to join him, and
will thus create an
enmity between her husband and him.
For these and similar other reasons
the wives of other men may be resorted to, but it
must be distinctly understood that is only allowed
for special reasons, and not for mere carnal desire.
Charayana thinks that under these
circumstances there is also a fifth kind of Nayika,
viz., a woman who is kept by a minister, and who
repairs to him occasionally; or a widow who accomplishes
the purpose of a man with the person to whom she resorts.
Suvarnanabha adds that a woman who
passes the life of an ascetic and in the condition
of a widow may be considered as a sixth kind of Nayika.
Ghotakamukha says that the daughter
of a public woman, and a female servant, who are still
virgins, form a seventh kind of Nayika.
Gonardiya puts forth his doctrine
that any woman born of good family, after she has
come of age, is an eighth kind of Nayika.
But these four latter kinds of Nayikas
do not differ much from the first four kinds of them,
as there is no separate object in resorting to them.
Therefore Vatsyayana is of opinion that there are only
four kinds of Nayikas, i.e., the maid, the
twice married woman, the public woman, and the woman
resorted to for a special purpose.
The following women are not to be enjoyed:
A woman turned out of caste.
A woman who reveals secrets.
A woman who publicly expresses desire for sexual intercourse.
A woman who is extremely white.
A woman who is extremely black.
A bad-smelling woman.
A woman who is a near relation.
A woman who is a female friend.
A woman who leads the life of an ascetic.
And, lastly, the wife of a relation,
of a friend, of a learned Brahman, and of the king.
The followers of Babhravya say that
any woman who has been enjoyed by five men is a fit
and proper person to be enjoyed. But Gonikaputra
is of opinion that even when this is the case, the
wives of a relation, of a learned Brahman and of a
king should be excepted.
The following are the kind of friends:
One who has played with you in the dust, i.e.,
One who is bound by an obligation.
One who is of the same disposition and fond of the
One who is a fellow student.
One who is acquainted with your secrets
and faults, and whose faults and secrets are also
known to you.
One who is a child of your nurse.
One who is brought up with you.
One who is an hereditary friend.
These friends should possess the following qualities:
They should tell the truth.
They should not be changed by time.
They should be favourable to your designs.
They should be firm.
They should be free from covetousness.
They should not be capable of being gained over by
They should not reveal your secrets.
Charayana says that citizens form
friendship with washermen, barbers, cowherds, florists,
druggists, betel-leaf sellers, tavern keepers, beggars,
Pithamardas, Vitas and Vidushekas, as also with the
wives of all these people.
A messenger should possess the following qualities:
Knowledge of the intention of men by their outward
Absence of confusion, i.e., no shyness.
Knowledge of the exact meaning of what others do or
Knowledge of appropriate times and places for doing
Ingenuity in business.
Quick application of remedies, i.e., quick
and ready resources.
And this part ends with a verse:
The man who is ingenious and wise,
who is accompanied by a friend, and who knows the
intentions of others, as also the proper time and place
for doing everything, can gain over, very easily, even
a woman who is very hard to be obtained.