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A very large and very interesting class of occult or psychic phenomena is that known under the very general classification of “Clairvoyance,” which term we have thought it advisable to employ in this sense in this book, notwithstanding the technical objections urged by some against such a general usage. The term “Clairvoyance” really means “clear seeing,” or “clear sight,” but its special meaning, established by long usage, is “A power of discerning objects not perceptible to the normal senses.” When it comes to the technical use of the term by students and teachers of psychic research and occultism, however, there is found a confused meaning of the term, some employing it in one sense, and others in another one. Accordingly, it is perhaps as well to explain the particular usage adopted and followed in this book.

Clairvoyance Defined

The English Society for Psychical Research, in its glossary, defines the term as follows: “The faculty or act of perceiving, as though visually, with some coincidental truth, some distant scene; it is used sometimes, but hardly properly, for transcendental vision, or the perception of beings regarded as on another plane of existence.” A distinguished investigator along psychic lines, in one of her reports to the English Society for Psychical Research, has given the following definition of this term as employed by her in her reports, viz., “The word ‘clairvoyant’ is often used very loosely, and with widely different meanings. I denote by it a faculty of acquiring supernormally, but not by reading the minds of persons present, a knowledge of facts such as we normally acquire by the use of our senses. I do not limit it to knowledge that would normally be acquired by the sense of sight, nor do I limit it to a knowledge of present facts. A similar knowledge of the past, and if necessary, of future events, may be included. On the other hand, I exclude the mere faculty of seeing apparitions, which is sometimes called clairvoyance.”

The last stated definition agrees almost perfectly with the views of the writer of the present book, and the term “Clairvoyance” is used here in the particular sense indicated by such definition. The student of this book, therefore, is asked to distinguish Clairvoyance, on the one hand, from the phenomena of Telepathy or Thought Transference, and, on the other hand, from the phenomena of communication with entities on other planes of existence, including the perception of apparitions.

The Phenomena of Clairvoyance.

The phenomena of Clairvoyance may be subdivided (a) according to methods employed, and also (b) according to general distinctions. The said classifications follow:

Classification according to methods. The classification of Clairvoyant Phenomena according to methods employed, proceeds as follows: (1) Psychometry, in which the clairvoyant becomes en rapport through the medium of some physical object connected with the person or scene which is the object of the en rapport connection; (2) crystal gazing, etc., in which the en rapport connection is established by means of a crystal, magic mirror, etc., into which the clairvoyant gazes; (3) direct clairvoyance, in which the clairvoyant directly establishes the en rapport connection by means of raising his or her psychic vibrations so as to become “in tune” with the finer vibrations of Nature, without the aid of physical objects.

Classification According to General Distinctions.

The classification of Clairvoyant Phenomena according to general distinctions, proceeds as follows: (1) Present clairvoyance, in which the objects perceived by the clairvoyant are present in Space and Time, although invisible to normal sight; (2) space clairvoyance, in which the clairvoyant vision includes objects and scenes removed in space from the immediate normal perception of the clairvoyant; (3) time clairvoyance, in which the clairvoyant perceives objects or scenes removed from him in past time, or future time.

In order that the student may obtain a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena of Clairvoyance, we have thought it well to give you a brief, general outline of the particular phenomena fitting into these several classes, and to give you, also, a general idea of the principal methods employed to obtain the phenomenal manifestations in question. We begin by calling your attention to the three general classes of method employed to obtain the manifestation of clairvoyant phenomena, namely: Psychometry, Crystal Gazing, and Clairvoyant Psychic States, respectively.

Psychometry.

In Psychometry, the clairvoyant establishes the en rapport connection with objects, persons or scenes, removed in space or in time, by means of some physical object associated with the distant object, person or scene; for instance, the physical objects may be a piece of clothing, a bit of stone, a coin, a bit of jewelry, etc., which has been closely associated with that which the clairvoyant desires to sense psychically. The distinctive feature of this class of clairvoyant phenomena is this connecting link of physical objects. A writer has cleverly compared this connecting link with the bit of clothing which the keen-scented bloodhound is given to sniff in order that he may then discover by scent the person sought, the latter having previously worn the bit of clothing presented to the dog’s sense of smell.

The “Psychic Scent.”

Occultists have elaborated a technical theory to account for the phenomena of Psychometry, or rather to account for the action of the “connecting link” of the physical object employed to establish the connection between clairvoyant and distant object, person, or scene. But we do not think it advisable to enter into a discussion of these elaborate, technical theories, which are apt to confuse the beginner, and to distract his attention from the important facts of the case. We think it is sufficient to say that the “connecting link,” or physical object, seems to carry along with it, in its inner substance or nature, the vibrations of its past environment; and that the clairvoyant, coming into receptive contact with such vibrations, is enabled with comparative ease to follow up the psychic “scent” until he establishes clairvoyant en rapport connection with the distant object, person, or scene associated with the physical object. When it is remembered that the physical “scent” of anything is merely a matter of the detection of certain vibrations, the illustration is seen to be not so very far out of the way after all.

Magnetic Affinity.

A somewhat celebrated investigator of psychic and occult phenomena has said concerning this phases of Clairvoyance: “The untrained clairvoyant usually cannot find any particular astral picture when it is wanted, without some special link to put him en rapport with the subject required. Psychometry is an instance in point. It seems as though there were a sort of magnetic attachment or affinity between any particle of matter and the record which contains its history an affinity which enables it to act as a kind of conductor between that record and the faculties of anyone who can read it. For instance, I once brought from Stonehenge a tiny fragment of stone, not larger than a pin’s head, and on putting this into an envelope and handing it to a psychometrist who had no idea what it was, she at once began to describe that wonderful ruin and the desolate country surrounding it, and then went on to picture vividly what were evidently scenes from its early history, showing that the infinitesimal fragment had been sufficient to put her into communication with the records connected with the spot from which it came. The scenes through which we pass in the course of our life seem to act in the same way upon the cells of our brain as did the history of Stonehenge upon that particle of stone. They establish a connection with those cells by means of which our mind is put en rapport with that particular portion of the records, and so we ‘remember’ what we have seen.”

Distant En Rapport.

One of the most familiar instances of the production of clairvoyant phenomena by means of Psychometry is that illustrated in the above quotation, namely the production of the en rapport relation with distant scenes by means of the connecting link of some small object which had at some time in the past been located at that point. In such cases the psychometrist usually presses the small object up to his or her head, and then induces a passive, receptive psychical condition; then, sooner or later, the clairvoyant experiences a “sensation,” or a “dream picture” of the scene in question. Often, once the picture of the scene is obtained, the clairvoyant may manifest more marked past-time clairvoyance, in the direction of running back over the history of the scene itself. The instance related in the above quotation is a case of this kind. Similar cases are frequently met with by the investigator along these lines, in which the clairvoyant is able to give the history of certain places in ancient Egypt, from the connecting link of a piece of mummy-cloth; or else to give a picture of certain events in antediluvian times, from the connecting link of a bit of fossil substance. The history of Psychometry is filled with remarkable instances of this kind. Bullets gathered from battlefields also serve very effectively as such psychometric connecting links. Old furniture, old pictures, and old jewelry also are common objects serving to produce wonderful phenomena of this kind. In fact, any physical object having past-time or far-distant space connections may be employed effectively in such experiments.

Psychic Underground Exploration.

Psychometry is frequently employed to describe underground or “mine” conditions existing at the present time at the particular place from which a particular piece of ore or mineral has been taken, which ore or mineral has been handed the psychometrist to be used as the connecting link. As many practical miners know from actual experience, many valuable coal, zinc, lead, silver and gold mines have been successfully located in this way. In such cases the psychometrist has been able to follow up the psychic “scent” given by the piece of mineral, and thus to describe the strata or veins of the mineral lying underground and unopened by the pick or drill.

Psychic Detective Work.

Many cases are recorded by the investigators in which the psychometrist is able to “sense” a particular locality, a house, a room, a place of business, for instance, by means of the connecting link afforded by some physical object formerly associated with the said location. Some writers have called this class of psychometric phenomena “psychic spying” or “psychic detective work.” One writer records a case in which he gave to a young psychometrist a penholder from the office of a lawyer, the latter being located about eight hundred miles away; the psychometrist then gave a perfect picture of the interior of the far-distant lawyer’s office, the scene across the street visible from the office window, and certain events which were happening in the office and on the street at that particular time all of which report was verified in detail by subsequent careful inquiry.

How to Psychometrize.

The following general remarks concerning Psychometry, given by a writer on the subject, will be found interesting and instructive. The writer says: “There are no special directions to be given the student in psychometry. All that can be done is to suggest that each person should try the experiments for himself, in order to find out whether he has, or has not the psychometric power in some degree of development. He may be able to develop his psychometric powers by the general methods given for psychic development; but, in any event, he will find that actual practice and experiment will do much for him in the direction of experiment. Let the student take strange objects, and, sitting in a quiet room with the object held to his forehead, endeavor to shut out all thoughts coming from the outside world, and forget all his personal affairs. In a short time, if the conditions be right, he will begin to have flashes of scenes associated with the history of the object in question. At first these impressions may be somewhat disconnected and more or less confused, but before long there will be noticed a clearing away of the scene, and the mental picture will become quite plain. Practice will develop the power. The student should practice only when alone or when in the presence of some sympathetic friend or friends. He should always avoid discordant and inharmonious company while practicing his psychic power. Many of the best psychometrists keep their physical eyes closed when practicing this power, thus allowing the inner senses to function without distraction from the outer senses.

Developing Psychometry.

“You have doubtless heard of the sensing of sealed letters spoken of as pure clairvoyance. But this phase of phenomena properly belongs to the realm of Psychometry. Letters frequently prove to be very excellent connecting links in psychometric experiments. I advise the student to begin with old letters. He will be surprised to discover how readily he will begin to receive psychic impressions from the letters either from the person who wrote them, or from the place in which they were written, or from some one connected with their subsequent history. One of the most interesting experiments I ever witnessed in Psychometry was that in which a letter that had been forwarded from place to place, until it had gone completely around the globe, was psychometrized by a young Hindu maid. Although ignorant of the outside world of foreign lands, the young women was able to picture the people and scenery of every part of the globe in which the letter had traveled. Her report was really an interesting ‘travelogue’ of a trip around the world, given in tabloid form. The student may obtain some interesting results in psychometrizing old letters but let him always be conscientious about it, and be careful to refrain from divulging the secrets that will become his during the course of these experiments. Let him be honorable on the psychic plane as well as on the physical plane more so, rather than less so, in fact.”

Varieties of Psychometry.

Another investigator along these lines gives the following instructive comments regarding the practice of psychometric power: “Persons of a highly-strung nervous organization, with large perceptive faculties make the best psychometrists. Phlegmatic people seldom psychometrize clearly, and usually lack receptivity to the finer forces. Letters, clothes, hair, coins, ornaments, or jewels in fact, almost any article which has belonged to, or has been worn by, its possessor for any length of time, will suffice to enable the psychometrist to relate himself to, and glimpse impressions of, the personal sphere of that individual. Some psychometrists succeed better with certain kinds of objects than with others. Metals and minerals are not good ’conductors’ if we may use that term to some operators; while they are very satisfactory to others. In the same way, some psychometrists are very good character readers, others are very successful in the diagnosis of diseases; some can read the book of Nature, while to others it is a sealed book, or nearly so, but they are able to gauge the mental qualifications of their visitors, while others realize their moral and spiritual states. Again, some read the Past, and enter into the Present states or condition of their clients, while others are successful in exercising prophetical prevision. These differences may be modified, and the boundaries of the perceptive power may be extended by self-study, experiment, and culture; but every psychic has his qualifications and his limitations; one will succeed where another may fail; hence it is well and wise for each one to discover what he can do best, what sphere he can best occupy, and then endeavor to fill it.

Psychometric “Getting in Touch.”

“A psychometrist may, by holding a letter in his hand, or putting it to his forehead, be able to perceive and delineate the personal appearance of the writer thereof, and, in a way, to ‘take on’ his conditions, describe his feelings and thoughts to such an extent as to identify himself with him and to feel, for the time being, as if he, himself, were the writer; he may even tell what is written in the letter, although unable to see the writing. Human hair is found by some psychometrists to give them the best means of coming into touch with their subjects, and it is said that such hair should be cut from the head just behind the ears, as close to the scalp as possible. It not infrequently happens that a psychometrist gets started upon a false trail, so to speak, and especially so when the inquirer is suspicious, or where there is a mixture of psychic influences. A fan passed by a lady to a sitter in the front row at a meeting, and held in the hands of the latter for a few minutes while awaiting a chance to be handed to the psychic, has resulted in a blending of vibratory influences which has caused an imperfect or confused ‘reading.’ In one case the gentleman who held the fan said ’I fully recognize the part of the description which the lady does not admit it applies to myself quite perfectly.’ Hence the necessity for care in providing articles for psychometrists in a public meeting. A ring, for instance, which has been in the family for generations, and handed from one wearer to another in the course of years, may afford such a blending of psychic vibrations that the psychometrist may be unable to sense distinctly each distinct stratum of influence therein.

Psychometric Readings.

“The person who sits for the psychometrist for a ‘reading’ should not be antagonistic nor frivolous, neither should he desire special information, nor concentrate his thought forces upon any given point, as otherwise he may dominate the psychic and thus mislead him into perceiving only a reflex of his own hopes or fears. He will do well to preserve an open mind, and an impartial though sympathetic mental attitude, and then await results. It is unwise to interrupt, explain, or question during the time that a delineation is being given, for by so doing the psychic sphere is disturbed and the thought projections caused to act like the breezes upon the surface of a lake, producing confused and distorted appearances. It is best to allow the descriptions to be given in its entirety before asking questions regarding any of its details; it is quite possible or probable that the very points upon which inquiries seem necessary will be more fully elucidated before the close of the reading. If a special reading, and not a general one is required say, for instance, a diagnosis of diseased conditions a hint of what is desired at the outset should be sufficient.”

Crystal Gazing, Etc.

The second of the three general classes of the methods employed to obtain the manifestation of clairvoyant phenomena is that known as Crystal Gazing. In this class of methods the clairvoyant establishes the en rapport condition by means of a crystal, magic mirror, or similar object, which serves principally to concentrate the psychic visual powers to a focus, and thus to enable the psychic to raise his or her psychic vibrations at that concentrated focused point.

Crystals and Bright Objects.

The use of crystals and other bright objects for this purpose has been common to occultists and psychics at all times, past and present, and at all places, oriental or occidental. The earlier races employed shining pieces of quartz or other clear crystal rock for this purpose. Later polished metals were used in the same way. The native soothsayers of barbaric lands employ clear water, glowing embers, or sparks, for this purpose. In some places the soothsayers hold drops of blood in the hollow of their hands for divining purposes. Others bore a hole in the ground, and fill it with water, and then gaze into it. Some tribes use dark polished stones. A writer on the subject has said: “They stare into a crystal ball, a cup, a mirror, a blot of ink, a drop of blood, a bowl of water, a pond, water in a glass bowl, or almost any polished surface, etc.” In fact, it may be said that almost every object capable of presenting a polished surface has been employed by some race as an aid to psychic vision. In Europe and America, at the present day, quartz or glass crystals are so used; but others obtain quite satisfactory results from the use of watch crystals laid over a black cloth, preferably a piece of black velvet cloth. Others use highly polished bits of silver; while others content themselves with the use of a little pool of black ink lying on the bottom of a small saucer, while others have cups painted black on the inside, into which is poured water.

The Care of the Crystal.

There is no particular virtue in any particular object used for this purpose, as such object acts merely to focus the psychic power of the person, as has been said. Certainly the student should not fall into the error of supposing that the crystal, or similar object, has any miraculous or supernatural power whatsoever, it is simply an instrument, like the microscope or telescope, nothing more or less. But, at the same time, it must be admitted that there is much truth in the claim of certain crystal gazers, to the effect that the use of a particular crystal seems to have the effect of polarizing its molecules so as to render it a more effective instrument in time. In fact, the phenomenon seems to bear a close relation to the well known case of a long-used violin becoming a more perfect instrument, and giving forth richer and fuller notes than a new instrument. The longer a gazing crystal is used, especially by the one person, the better does it seem to serve the purposes of that particular person. Experts in crystal gazing insist that the crystal gazer should keep his own crystal for his own particular use, and not allow it to be used indiscriminately, particularly in the case of strangers or of persons not sympathetic with psychic subjects. They claim that each crystal becomes polarized according to the individual character and needs of the person habitually using it, and that it is unwise to allow others to disturb this quality in it.

How to Use the Crystal.

The best authorities on the subject of crystal-gazing insist that all experiments along the said lines should be conducted in a serious, earnest manner, and that all frivolity or trifling should be avoided if the best results are wished for. This, of course, is true concerning all phases of psychic investigation, as all true students of the subject know. All the authorities agree that the crystal gazer should sit with the light behind his back, and never in front of him. While an earnest steady gaze is desirable, there should be no straining of the eyes. As one writer has said: “Gaze calmly at the crystal, but do not strain your eyes. Do not try to avoid winking your eyes there is a difference between ‘gazing’ and ‘staring,’ remember.” Some authorities advise that the crystal gazer should make funnels of his hands, using them as he would a pair of opera-glasses.

The “Milky Mist.”

While some experimenters obtain results almost from the time of the first trial, others find that it requires a number of sittings before they begin to obtain even faint results. The psychic picture in the crystal usually begins by the appearance of a cloudy “milky mist,” succeeding the former transparent appearance of the crystal. The milky cloud becomes more dense, and finally there appears in its midst a faint form, outline, face, or scene of some kind. Some have compared this gradual emergence of the picture to the gradual development of the picture of the photographic plate when the latter is subjected to the action of the developing fluid.

Classes of Psychic Pictures.

An English writer on the subject furnishes the following general classification of the psychic pictures manifested in the process of crystal gazing. The said authority might well have added that each and every form of clairvoyant picturing is possible in crystal gazing; for crystal gazing is merely one particular form or method of inducing clairvoyant or psychic vision, and is not a distinct branch of psychic phenomena in itself. The classification of the English authority, however, is as follows:

“1. Images of something unconsciously observed. New reproductions, voluntary or spontaneous, and bringing no fresh knowledge to the mind.

“2. Images of ideas unconsciously acquired from others. Some memory or imaginative effort which does not come from the gazer’s ordinary self. Revivals of memory. Illustrations of thought.

“3. Images, clairvoyant or prophetic. Pictures giving information as to something past, present, or future, which the gazer has no other chance of knowing.”

General Directions for Crystal Gazing.

An old English authority on the subject of crystal gazing handed down to his students a certain set of general directions and rules to govern the conduct of their experiments. These rules and directions have never been improved upon by the later writers on the subject, according to the opinion of the best authorities; and such stand today as perhaps the simplest and best set of general rules and directions on this important subject. For this reason we have thought it advisable to include the same in this chapter, for the guidance of our own students. Here follow the said general rules and directions:

“What is desired through the regular use of the translucent sphere is to cultivate a personal degree of clairvoyant power, so that visions of things or events, past, present, and future, may appear clearly in the interior vision, or eye of the soul. In the pursuit of this effort only, the crystal becomes at once a beautiful, interesting and harmless channel of pleasure and instruction, shorn of dangers, and rendered conducive to mental development. To the attainment of this desirable end, attention is asked to the following practical directions, which, if carefully followed, will lead to success:

Selection of Place, Etc.

“(1) Select a quiet room where you will be entirely undisturbed, taking care that it is as far as possible free from mirrors, ornaments, pictures, glaring colors, and the like, which may otherwise distract the attention. The room should be of comfortable temperature, in accordance with the time of year, neither hot nor cold. About 60 to 65 degrees Fahr. is suitable in most cases, though allowance can be made where necessary for natural differences in the temperaments of various persons. Thus thin, nervous, delicately organized individuals, and those of lymphatic and soft, easy-going, passive types, require a slightly warmer apartment than the more positive class who are known by their dark eyes, hair and complexion, combined with prominent joints. Should a fire, or any form of artificial light be necessary, it should be screened off, so as to prevent the light rays from being reflected in, or in any other manner directly reaching the crystal. The room should not be dark, but rather shadowed, or charged with a dull light, somewhat such as prevails on a cloudy or wet day.

Adjusting the Crystal.

“(2) The crystal should be placed on its stand on a table, or it may rest on a black velvet cushion, but in either case it should be partially surrounded by a black silk or similar wrap or screen, so adjusted as to cut off any undesirable reflection. Before beginning to experiment, remember that most frequently nothing will be seen on the first occasion, and possibly not for several sittings; though some sitters, if strongly gifted with psychic powers in a state of unconsciousness, and sometimes conscious degree of unfoldment, may be fortunate enough to obtain good results at the first trial. If, therefore, nothing is perceived during the first few attempts, do not despair or become impatient, or imagine that you will never see anything. There is a royal road to crystal vision, but it is open only to the combined password of Calmness, Patience, and Perseverance. If at the first attempt to ride a bicycle, failure ensues, the only way to learn is to pay attention to the necessary rules, and to persevere daily until the ability to ride comes naturally. Thus it is with the would-be seer. Persevere in accordance with these simple directions, and success will sooner or later crown your efforts.

Time of Sittings.

“(3) Commence by sitting comfortably with the eyes fixed upon the crystal, not by a fixed stare, but with a steady, calm gaze, for ten minutes only, on the first occasion. In taking the time it is best to hang your watch at a distance, where, while the face is clearly visible, the ticking is rendered inaudible. When the time is up, carefully put the crystal away in its case, and keep it in a dark place, under lock and key, allowing no one but yourself to handle it. At the second sitting, which should be at the same place, in the same position, and at the same time, you may increase the length of the effort to fifteen minutes, and continue this period during the next five or six sittings, after which the time may be gradually increased, but should in no case exceed one hour. The precise order of repetition is always to be followed until the experimenter has developed an almost automatic ability to readily obtain results, when it need no longer be adhered to.

Other Persons Present.

“(4) Any person, or persons, admitted to the room, and allowed to remain while you sit, should (a) keep absolute silence, and (b) remain seated at a distance from you. When you have developed your latent powers, questions may, of course, be put to you by one of those present, but even then in a very gentle, or low and slow tone of voice; never suddenly, or in a forceful manner.

Crystalline Vision.

“(5) When you find the crystals begin to look dull or cloudy, with small pin-points of light glittering therein, like tiny stars, you may know that you are commencing to obtain that for which you seek, viz., crystalline vision. Therefore, persevere with confidence. This condition may, or may not, continue for several sittings, the crystal seeming at times to alternatively appear and disappear, as in a mist. By and by this hazy appearance, in its turn, will give way quite suddenly to a blindness of the senses to all else but a blue or bluish ocean of space, against which, as if it were a background, the vision will be clearly apparent.

Physical Requirements.

“(6) The crystal should not be used soon after taking a meal, and care should be taken in matters of diet to partake only of digestible foods, and to avoid alcoholic beverages. Plain and nourishing food, and outdoor exercise, with contentment of mind, or love of simplicity of living, are great aids to success. Mental anxiety, or ill-health, are not conducive to the desired end. Attention to correct breathing is of importance.

Determining Time of Fulfillment.

“(7) As regards the time at which events seen will come to pass, each seer is usually impressed with regard thereto; but, as a general rule, visions appearing in the extreme background indicate time more remote, either past or future, than those perceived nearer at hand; while those appearing in the foreground, or closer to the seer, denote the present or immediate future.

Two Classes of Visions.

“(8) Two principal classes of vision will present themselves to the sitter, viz.: (a) the Symbolic, indicated by the appearance of symbols such as a flag, boat, knife, gold, etc., and (b) Actual Scenes and Personages, in action or otherwise. Persons of a positive type of organization, the more active, excitable, yet decided type, are most likely to perceive symbolically, or allegorically; while those of a passive nature usually receive direct or literal revelations. Both classes will find it necessary to carefully cultivate truthfulness, unselfishness, gratitude for what is shown, and absolute confidence in the love, wisdom, and guidance of God Himself.”

Time and Space in Crystal Gazing.

In the subsequent pages the student will perceive the different manifestations of clairvoyant vision classified according to the distinction of Time and Space. Clairvoyant vision may disclose objects, scenes, or persons either near by in space, or far off in space; either existing in present time, in past time, or in future time. Inasmuch as the visions of crystal gazing are merely particular forms of clairvoyant vision, it follows that all of the several above named distinctive forms of vision are manifested in crystal gazing. The vision shown in the crystal may be that of something very near in space, or perhaps very far off in space, or removed in space only a moderate distance. Likewise such vision may be based upon things existing at the present time, or at some period of past time, or at some period of and visions of past, present, or future things, events, persons, scenes each or all of these manifestations are possible to the clairvoyant vision of the crystal gazer, and pictured in the reflecting surface of the crystal or other shining surface employed by him in his experiments.

Direct Clairvoyance.

The third of the three general classes of the methods employed to obtain the manifestation of clairvoyant phenomena is that known as Direct Clairvoyance. In this class of methods the clairvoyant directly establishes the en rapport connection with the past or present, near or distant, objects, persons, scenes, or events, by means of raising his or her psychic vibrations so as to become “in tune” with the finer vibrations of Nature, without the aid of the physical objects required in the methods of Psychometry and Crystal Gazing, respectively.

Trance Conditions.

Many clairvoyants, manifesting their powers by means of the methods of Direct Clairvoyance, produce in themselves the condition of trance, or semi-trance condition. Many students believe that these conditions are absolutely necessary for the production of this kind of phenomena, but they neglect, or are actually unaware of, the fact that many of the highest forms of this class of clairvoyant phenomena are manifested by clairvoyants who are no more in a trance condition, or that of semi-trance, than those following the methods of Psychometry or Crystal Gazing, respectively. All that is required is that the clairvoyant maintain a quiescent mental attitude, shutting out the sounds, sights, and thoughts of the outside world, and concentrating the full attention upon the clairvoyant work before him or her. Some, it is true, pass easily into the semi-trance, or even the full trance condition, but the latter are not absolutely necessary states.

Clairvoyant Reverie.

A writer on the subject of Clairvoyance says: “The best authorities instruct their pupils that the state of clairvoyant reverie may be safely and effectively induced by the practice of mental concentration alone. They advise positively against artificial methods. All that is needed is that the consciousness be focused to a single point become ‘one pointed’ as the Hindu teachers call it. The intelligent practice of concentration accomplishes this without the necessity of any artificial methods of development, or the production of abnormal psychic states. You easily concentrate your full attention when you witness an interesting play, or listen to a beautiful rendition of some great masterpiece of musical composition, or gaze at some miracle of pictured or sculptured art. In these cases your attention is completely occupied with the interesting thing before you, so that you have almost completely shut out the outer world of sound, sight, and thought but you are, nevertheless, perfectly wide awake and conscious. The same thing is true when you read a very interesting book the world is shut out from your consciousness, and you are oblivious to the sights and sounds around you. We frequently witness the sight of two lovers to whom the outside world is non-existent for the time being, and to whom there is nothing in the world except themselves. Again, persons often fall into a ‘brown study,’ or ‘day dream,’ in which all consciousness of the outside world seems to be shut out, yet the person is fully conscious and wide awake. These mental states are very much akin to that of the trained clairvoyant, and is the state which should be sought after by all clairvoyants, whether they are following the methods of Psychometry, Crystal Gazing, or that of Direct Clairvoyance for the principle is one and the same in all of such methods.”

The Dawn of Clairvoyance.

A well-known authority on the subject of Psychic Development says: “Occasional flashes of clairvoyance sometimes comes to the highly cultured and spiritual-minded man, even though he may never have heard of the possibility of training such a faculty. In his case such glimpses usually signify that he is approaching that stage in his evolution when these powers will naturally begin to manifest themselves. Their appearance should serve as an additional stimulus to him to strive to maintain that high standard of moral purity and mental balance without which clairvoyance is a curse and not a blessing to its possessor. Between those who are entirely unimpressionable and those who are in full possession of clairvoyant power, there are many intermediate stages. Students often ask how this clairvoyant faculty will first be manifested in themselves how they may know when they have reached the stage at which its first faint foreshadowings are beginning to be visible. Cases differ so widely that it is impossible to give to this question any answer that will be universally applicable. Some people begin by a plunge, as it were, and under some unusual stimulus become able just for once to see some striking vision; and very often in such a case, because the experience does not repeat itself, the seer comes in time to believe that on that occasion he must have been the victim of hallucination. Others begin by becoming intermittently conscious of the brilliant colors and vibrations of the human aura; yet others find themselves with increasing frequency seeing and hearing something to which those around them are blind and deaf; others, again, see faces, landscapes, or colored clouds floating before their eyes in the dark, before they sink to rest; while perhaps the commonest experience of all is that of those who begin to recollect with greater and greater clearness what they have seen and heard on other planes during sleep.”

Methods of Development.

The same authority, after warning students against attempting to develop their psychic powers by unnatural and harmful practices, such as self-hypnotism, self-stupefication, etc., gives the following excellent advice concerning the normal development of clairvoyant and other high psychic powers and faculties: “There is one practice which if adopted carefully and reverently can do no harm to any human being, yet from which a very pure type of clairvoyance has sometimes been developed and that is the practice of Meditation. Let a man choose a certain time every day a time when he can rely upon being quiet and undisturbed, though preferably in the daytime rather than at night and set himself at that time to keep his mind for a few minutes entirely free from all earthly thoughts of any kind whatsoever; and, when that is achieved, to direct the whole force of his being towards the highest ideal he happens to know. He will find that to gain perfect control of thought is enormously more difficult than he supposes, but when he attains it this cannot but be in every way more beneficial to him, and as he grows more and more able to elevate and concentrate his thoughts, he may gradually find that new worlds are opening before his sight. As a preliminary training towards the satisfactory achievement of such meditation, he will find it desirable to make a practice of concentration in the affairs of daily life even in the smallest of them. If he writes a letter, let him think of nothing else but that letter until it is finished; if he reads a book, let him see to it that his thought is never allowed to wander away from his author’s meaning. He must learn to hold his mind in check, and to be master of that also, as well as of his lower passions; he must patiently labor to acquire absolute control of his thoughts, so that he will always know exactly what he is thinking about, and why so that he can use his mind, and turn it or hold it still, as a practiced swordsman turns his weapon where he will.”