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BILDERS, MARIE VAN BOSSE. This celebrated landscape painter became an artist through her determination to be an artist rather than because of any impelling natural force driving her to this career.

After patient and continuous toil, she felt that she was developing an artistic impulse. The advice of Van de Sande-Bakhuyzen greatly encouraged her, and the candid and friendly criticism of Bosboom inspired her with the courage to exhibit her work in public.

In the summer of 1875, in Vorden, she met Johannes Bilders, under whose direction she studied landscape painting. This master took great pains to develop the originality of his pupil rather than to encourage her adapting the manner of other artists. During her stay in Vorden she made a distinct gain in the attainment of an individual style of painting.

After her return to her home at The Hague, Bilders established a studio there and showed a still keener interest in his pupil. This artistic friendship resulted in the marriage of the two artists, and in 1880 they established themselves in Oosterbeck.

Here began the intimate study of the heath which so largely influenced the best pictures by Frau Bilders. In the garden of the picturesque house in which the two artists lived was an old barn, which became her studio, where, early and late, in all sorts of weather, she devotedly observed the effects later pictured on her canvases. At this time she executed one of her best works, now in the collection of the Prince Regent of Brunswick. It is thus described by a Dutch writer in Rooses’ “Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth Century”:

“It represents a deep pool, overshadowed by old gnarled willows in their autumnal foliage, their silvery trunks bending over, as if to see themselves in the clear, still water. On the edge of the pool are flowers and variegated grasses, the latter looking as if they wished to crowd out the former as if they were in the right and the flowers in the wrong; as if such bright-hued creatures had no business to eclipse their more sombre tones; as if they and they alone were suited to this silent, forsaken spot.”

Johannes Bilders was fully twenty-five years older than his wife, and the failure of both his physical and mental powers in his last days required her absolute devotion to him. In spite of this, the garden studio was not wholly forsaken, and nearly every day she accomplished something there. After her husband’s death she had a long illness. On her recovery she returned to The Hague and took the studio which had been that of the artist Mauve.

The life of the town was wearisome to her, but she found a compensation in her re-union with her old friends, and with occasional visits to the heath she passed most of her remaining years in the city.

Her favorite subjects were landscapes with birch and beech trees, and the varying phases of the heath and of solitary and unfrequented scenes. Her works are all in private collections. Among them are “The Forester’s Cottage,” “Autumn in Doorwerth,” “The Old Birch,” and the “Old Oaks of Wodan at Sunset.”

BOZNANSKA, OLGA. Born in Cracow, where she was a pupil of Matejko. Later, in Munich, she studied with Kricheldorf and Duerr. Her mother was a French woman, and critics trace both Polish and French characteristics in her work.

She paints portraits and genre subjects. She is skilful in seizing salient characteristics, and her chief aim is to preserve the individuality of her sitters and models. She skilfully manages the side-lights, and by this means produces strong effects. After the first exhibition of her pictures in Berlin, her “God-given talent” was several times mentioned by the art critics.

At Munich she made a good impression by her pictures exhibited in 1893 and 1895; at the Exposition in Paris, 1889, her portrait and a study in pastel were much admired and were generously praised in the art journals.

COX, LOUISE. The picture by Mrs. Cox, reproduced in this book, illustrates two lines in a poem by Austin Dobson, called “A Song of Angiola in Heaven.”

“Then set I lips to hers, and felt,
Ah, God, the hard pain fade and melt.”

DE MORGAN, EMILY. Family name Pickering. When sixteen years old, this artist entered the Slade School, and eighteen months later received the Slade Scholarship, by which she was entitled to benefit for three years. At the end of the first year, however, she resigned this privilege because she did not wish to accept the conditions of the gift.

As a child she had loved the pictures of the precursors of Raphael, in the National Gallery, and her first exhibited picture, “Ariadne in Naxos,” hung in the Grosvenor Gallery in 1877, proved how closely she had studied these old masters. At this time she knew nothing of the English Pre-Raphaelites; later, however, she became one of the most worthy followers of Burne-Jones.

About the time that she left the Slade School one of her uncles took up his residence in Florence, where she has spent several winters in work and study.

One of her most important pictures is inscribed with these lines:

“Dark is the valley of shadows,
Empty the power of kings;
Blind is the favor of fortune,
Hungry the caverns of death.
Dim is the light from beyond,
Unanswered the riddle of life.”

This pessimistic view of the world is illustrated by the figure of a king, who, in the midst of ruins, places his foot upon the prostrate form of a chained victim; Happiness, with bandaged eyes, scatters treasures into the bottomless pit, a desperate youth being about to plunge into its depths; a kneeling woman, praying for light, sees brilliant figures soaring upward, their beauty charming roses from the thorn bushes.

Other pictures by this artist remind one of the works of Botticelli. Of her “Ithuriel” W. S. Sparrow wrote: “It may be thought that this Ithuriel is too mild too much like Shakespeare’s Oberon to be in keeping with the terrific tragedy depicted in the first four books of the ’Paradise Lost.’ Eve, too, lovely as she is, seems to bear no likelihood of resemblance to Milton’s superb mother of mankind. But the picture has a sweet, serene grace which should make us glad to accept from Mrs. De Morgan another Eve and another Ithuriel, true children of her own fancy.”

The myth of “Boreas and Orithyia,” though faulty perhaps in technique, is good in conception and arrangement.

Mrs. De Morgan has produced some impressive works in sculpture. Among these are “Medusa,” a bronze bust; and a “Mater Dolorosa,” in terra-cotta.

DESCHLY, IRENE. Born in Bucharest, the daughter of a Roumanian advocate. She gave such promise as an artist that a government stipend was bestowed on her, which enabled her to study in Paris, where she was a pupil of Laurens and E. Carriere.

Her work is tinged with the melancholy and intensity of her nature perhaps of her race; yet there is something in her grim conceptions, or rather in her treatment of them, that demands attention and compels admiration. Even in her “Sweet Dream,” which represents the half-nude figure of a young girl holding a rose in her hand, there is more sadness than joy, as though she said, “It is only a dream, after all.” “Chanson,” exhibited at the Paris Exposition, 1900, displays something of the same quality.

ERISTOW-KASAK, PRINCESS MARIE. Among the many Russian portraits in the Paris Exposition, 1900, two, the work of this pupil of Michel de Zichys, stood out in splendid contrast with the crass realism or the weak idealism of the greater number. One was a half-length portrait of the laughing Mme. Paquin; full of life and movement were the pose of the figure, the fall of the draperies, and the tilt of the expressive fan. The other was the spirited portrait of Baron von Friedericks, a happy combination of cavalier and soldier in its manly strength.

When but sixteen years old, the Princess Marie roused the admiration of the Russian court by her portrait of the Grand Duke Sergius. This led to her painting portraits of various members of the royal family while she was still a pupil of De Zichys.

After her marriage she established herself in Paris, where she endeavors to preserve an incognito as an artist in order to work in the most quiet and devoted manner.

GOEBELER, ELISE. This artist studied drawing under Steffeck and color under Duerr, in Munich. Connoisseurs in art welcome the name of Elise Goebeler in exhibitions, and recall the remarkable violet-blue lights and the hazy atmosphere in her works, out of which emerges some charming, graceful figure; perhaps a young girl on whose white shoulders the light falls, while a shadow half conceals the rest of the form. These dreamy, Madonna-like beauties are the result of the most severe and protracted study. Without the remarkable excellence of their technique and the unusual quality of their color they would be the veriest sentimentalities; but wherever they are seen they command admiration.

Her “Cinderella,” exhibited in Berlin in 1880, was bought by the Emperor; another picture of the same subject, but quite different in effect, was exhibited in Munich in 1883. In the same year, in Berlin, “A Young Girl with Pussy-Willows” and “A Neapolitan Water Carrier” were seen. In 1887, in Berlin, her “Vanitas, Vanitatum Vanitas” and the “Net-Mender” were exhibited, and ten years later “Cheerfulness” was highly commended. At Munich, in 1899, her picture, called “Elegie,” attracted much attention and received unusual praise.

HERBELIN, JEANE MATHILDE. This miniaturist has recently died at the age of eighty-four. In addition to the medals and honors she had received previous to 1855, it was that year decided that her works should be admitted to the Salon without examination. She was a daughter of General Habert, and a niece of Belloc, under whom she studied her art while still very young. Her early ambition was to paint large pictures, but Delacroix persuaded her to devote herself to miniature painting, in which art she has been called “the best in the world.”

She adopted the full tones and broad style to which she was accustomed in her larger works, and revolutionized the method of miniature painting in which stippling had prevailed. When eighteen years old, she went to Italy, where she made copies from the masters and did much original work as well.

Among her best portraits are those of the Baroness Habert, Guizot, Rossini, Isabey, Robert-Fleury, M. and Mme. de Torigny, Count de Zeppel, and her own portrait. Besides portraits, she painted a picture called “A Child Holding a Rose,” “Souvenir,” and “A Young Girl Playing with a Fan.”

JOHNSON, ADELAIDE. Born at Plymouth, Illinois. This sculptor first studied in the St. Louis School of Design, and in 1877, at the St. Louis Exposition, received two prizes for the excellence of her wood carving. During several years she devoted herself to interior decoration, designing not only the form and color to be used in decorating edifices, but also the furniture and all necessary details to complete them and make them ready for use.

Being desirous of becoming a sculptor, Miss Johnson went, in 1883, to England, Germany, and Italy. In Rome she was a pupil of Monteverde and of Altini, who was then president of the Academy of St. Luke.

After two years she returned to America and began her professional career in Chicago, where she remained but a year before establishing herself in Washington. Her best-known works are portrait busts, which are numerous. Many of these have been seen in the Corcoran Art Gallery and in other public exhibitions.

Of her bust of Susan B. Anthony, the sculptor, Lorado Taft, said: “Your bust of Miss Anthony is better than mine. I tried to make her real, but you have made her not only real, but ideal.” Among her portraits are those of General Logan, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Isabella Beecher Hooker, William Tebb, Esq., of London, etc.

KOEGEL, LINDA. Born at The Hague. A pupil of Stauffer-Bern in Berlin and of Herterich in Munich. Her attachment to impressionism leads this artist to many experiments in color or, as one critic wrote, “to play with color.”

She apparently prefers to paint single figures of women and young girls, but her works include a variety of subjects. She also practises etching, pen-and-ink drawing, as well as crayon and water-color sketching. The light touch in some of her genre pictures is admirable, and in contrast, the portrait of her father –­ the court preacher displays a masculine firmness in its handling, and is a very striking picture.

In 1895 she exhibited at the Munich Secession the portrait of a woman, delicate but spirited, and a group which was said to set aside every convention in the happiest manner.

KROENER, MAGDA. The pictures of flowers which this artist paints prove her to be a devoted lover of nature. She exhibited at Duesseldorf, in 1893, a captivating study of red poppies and another of flowering vetch, which were bought by the German Emperor. The following year she exhibited two landscapes, one of which was so much better than the other that it was suggested that she might have been assisted by her husband, the animal painter, Christian Kroener.

One of her most delightful pictures, “A Quiet Corner,” represents a retired nook in a garden, overgrown with foliage and flowers, so well painted that one feels that they must be fragrant.

LEPSIUS, SABINA. Daughter of Gustav Graf and wife of the portrait painter, Lepsius. She was a pupil of Gussow, then of the Julian Academy in Paris, and later studied in Rome. Her pictures have an unusual refinement; like some other German women artists, she aims at giving a subtle impression of character and personality in her treatment of externals, and her work has been said to affect one like music.

The portrait of her little daughter, painted in a manner which suggests Van Dyck, is one of the works which entitle her to consideration.

LEYSTER, JUDITH. A native of Haarlem on Zandam, the date of her birth being unknown. She died in 1660. In 1636 she married the well-known artist, Jan Molemaer. She did her work at a most interesting period in Dutch painting. Her earliest picture is dated 1629; she was chosen to the Guild of St. Luke at Haarlem in 1633.

Recent investigations make it probable that certain pictures which have for generations been attributed to Frans Hals were the work of Judith Leyster. In 1893 a most interesting lawsuit, which occurred in London and was reported in the Times, concerned a picture known as “The Fiddlers,” which had been sold as a work of Frans Hals for L4,500. The purchasers found that this claim was not well founded, and sought to recover their money.

A searching investigation traced the ownership of the work back to a connoisseur of the time of William III. In 1678 it was sold for a small sum, and was then called “A Dutch Courtesan Drinking with a Young Man.” The monogram on the picture was called that of Frans Hals, but as reproduced and explained by C. Hofstede de Groot in the “Jahrbuch fuer Koeniglich-preussischen Kunst-Sammlungen” for 1893, it seems evident that the signature is J. L. and not F. H.

Similar initials are on the “Flute Player,” in the gallery at Stockholm; the “Seamstress,” in The Hague Gallery, and on a picture in the Six collection at Amsterdam.

It is undeniable that these pictures all show the influence of Hals, whose pupil Judith Leyster may have been, and whose manner she caught as Mlle. Mayer caught that of Greuze and Prud’hon. At all events, the present evidence seems to support the claim that the world is indebted to Judith Leyster for these admirable pictures.

MACH, HILDEGARDE VON. This painter studied in Dresden and Munich, and under the influence of Anton Pepinos she developed her best characteristics, her fine sense of form and of color. She admirably illustrates the modern tendency in art toward individual expression a tendency which permits the following of original methods, and affords an outlet for energy and strength of temperament.

Fraeulein Mach has made a name in both portrait and genre painting. Her “Waldesgrauen” represents two naked children in an attitude of alarm as the forest grows dark around them; it gives a vivid impression of the mysterious charm and the possible dangers which the deep woods present to the childish mind.

MAYER, MARIE FRANCOISE CONSTANCE. As early as 1806 this artist received a gold medal from the Paris Salon, awarded to her picture of “Venus and Love Asleep.” Born 1775, died 1821. She studied under Suvee, Greuze, and Prud’hon. There are various accounts of the life of Mlle. Mayer. That of M. Charles Guenllette is the authority followed here. It is probable that Mlle. Mayer came under the influence of Prud’hon as early as 1802, possibly before that time.

Prud’hon, a sensitive man, absorbed in his art, had married at twenty a woman who had no sympathy with his ideals, and when she realized that he had no ambition, and was likely to be always poor, her temper got the better of any affection she had ever felt for him. Prud’hon, in humiliation and despair, lived in a solitude almost complete.

It was with difficulty that Mlle. Mayer persuaded this master to receive her as a pupil; but this being gained, both these painters had studios in the Sorbonne from 1809 to 1821. At the latter date all artists were obliged to vacate the Sorbonne ateliers to make room for some new department of instruction. Mlle. Mayer had been for some time in a depressed condition, and her friends had been anxious about her. Whether leaving the Sorbonne had a tendency to increase her melancholy is not known, but her suicide came as a great surprise and shock to all who knew her, especially to Prud’hon, who survived her less than two years.

Prud’hon painted several portraits of Mlle. Mayer, the best-known being now in the Louvre. It represents an engaging personality, in which vivacity and sensibility are distinctly indicated.

Mlle. Mayer had made her debut at the Salon of 1896 with a portrait of “Citizeness Mayer,” painted by herself, and showing a sketch for the portrait of her mother; also a picture of a “Young Scholar with a Portfolio Under His Arm,” and a miniature. From this time her work was seen at each year’s salon.

Her pictures in 1810 were the “Happy Mother” and the “Unhappy Mother,” which are now in the Louvre; the contrast between the joyousness of the mother with her child and the anguish of the mother who has lost her child is portrayed with great tenderness. The “Dream of Happiness,” also in the Louvre, represents a young couple in a boat with their child; the boat is guided down the stream of life by Love and Fortune. This is one of her best pictures. It is full of poetic feeling, and the flesh tints are unusually natural. The work of this artist is characterized by delicacy of touch and freshness of color while pervaded by a peculiar grace and charm. Her drawing is good, but the composition is less satisfactory.

It is well known that Prud’hon and his pupil painted many pictures in collaboration. This has led to an under-valuation of her ability, and both the inferior works of Prud’hon and bad imitations of him have been attributed to her. M. Guenllette writes that when Mlle. Mayer studied under Greuze she painted in his manner, and he inclines to the opinion that some pictures attributed to Greuze were the work of his pupil. In the same way she imitated Prud’hon, and this critic thinks it by no means certain that the master finished her work, as has been alleged.

In the Museum at Nancy are Mlle. Mayer’s portraits of Mme. and Mlle. Voiant; in the Museum of Dijon is an ideal head by her, and in the Bordeaux Gallery is her picture, called “Confidence.” “Innocence Prefers Love to Riches” and the “Torch of Venus” are well-known works by Mlle. Mayer.

MESDAG-VAN HOUTEN, S. Gold medal at Amsterdam, 1884; bronze medal, Paris Exposition, 1889. Born at Groningen, 1834. In 1856 she married Mesdag, who, rather late in life decided to follow the career of a painter. His wife, not wishing to be separated from him in any sense, resolved on the same profession, and about 1870 they began their study. Mme. Mesdag acquired her technique with difficulty, and her success was achieved only as the result of great perseverance and continual labor. The artists of Oosterbeck and Brussels, who were her associates, materially aided her by their encouragement. She began the study of drawing at the age of thirty, and her first attempt in oils was made seven years later. Beginning with single twigs and working over them patiently she at length painted whole trees, and later animals. She came to know the peculiarities of nearly all native trees.

She built a studio in the woods of Scheveningen, and there developed her characteristics close observation and careful reproduction of details.

In the summer of 1872 M. and Mme. Mesdag went to Friesland and Drenthe, where they made numerous sketches of the heath, sheep, farmhouses, and the people in their quaint costumes. One of Mme. Mesdag’s pictures, afterward exhibited at Berlin, is thus described: “On this canvas we see the moon, just as she has broken through a gray cloud, spreading her silvery sheen over the sleepy land; in the centre we are given a sheep-fold, at the door of which a flock of sheep are jostling and pushing each other, all eager to enter their place of rest. The wave-like movement of these animals is particularly graceful and cleverly done. A little shepherdess is guiding them, as anxious to get them in as they are to enter, for this means the end of her day’s work. Her worn-out blue petticoat is lighted up by a moonbeam; in her hand she appears to have a hoe. It is a most harmonious picture; every line is in accord with its neighbor.”

While residing in Brussels these two artists began to collect works of art for what is now known as the Mesdag Museum. In 1887 a wing was added to their house to accommodate their increasing treasures, which include especially good examples of modern French painting, pottery, tapestry, etc.

In 1889 an exhibition of the works of these painters was held. Here convincing proof was given of Mme. Mesdag’s accuracy, originality of interpretation, and her skill in the use of color.

MOeLLER, AGNES SLOTT, OR SLOTT-MOeLLER, AGNES. This artist follows the young romantic movement in Denmark. She has embodied in her work a modern comprehension of old legends. The landscape and people of her native land seem to her as eminently suitable motives, and these realities she renders in the spirit of a by-gone age that of the national heroes of the sagas and epics of the country, or the lyric atmosphere of the folk-songs.

She may depict these conceptions, full of feeling, in the dull colors of the North, or in rich and glowing hues, but the impression she gives is much the same in both cases, a generally restful effect, though the faces in her pictures are full of life and emotion. Her choice of subjects and her manner of treatment almost inevitably introduce some archaic quality in her work. This habit and the fact that she cares more for color than for drawing are the usual criticisms of her pictures.

Her “St. Agnes” is an interesting rendering of a well-worn subject. “Adelil the Proud,” exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1889, tells the story of the Duke of Frydensburg, who was in love with Adelil, the king’s daughter. The king put him to death, and the attendants of Adelil made of his heart a viand which they presented to her. When she learned what this singular substance was that caused her to tremble violently she asked for wine, and carrying the cup to her lips with a tragic gesture, in memory of her lover, she died of a broken heart. It is such legends as these that Mme. Slott-Moeller revives, and by which she is widely known.

MORISOT OR MORIZOT, BERTHE. Married name Manet. Born at Bourges, 1840, died in Paris, 1895. A pupil of Guichard and Oudinot. After her marriage to Eugene Manet she came under the influence of his famous brother, Edouard. This artist signed her pictures with her maiden name, being too modest to use that which she felt belonged only to Edouard Manet, in the world of art.

A great interest was, however, aroused in the private galleries, where the works of the early impressionists were seen, by the pictures of Berthe Morisot. Camille Mauclair, an enthusiastic admirer of this school of art, says: “Berthe Morizot will remain the most fascinating figure of Impressionism the one who has stated most precisely the femininity of this luminous and iridescent art.”

A great-granddaughter of Fragonard, she seems to have inherited his talent; Corot and Renoir forcibly appealed to her. These elements, modified by her personal attitude, imparted a strong individuality to her works, which divided honors with her personal charms.

According to the general verdict, she was equally successful in oils and water-colors. Her favorite subjects although she painted others were sea-coast views, flowers, orchards, and gardens and young girls in every variety of costume.

After the death of Edouard Manet, she devoted herself to building up an appreciation of his work in the public mind. So intelligent were her methods that she doubtless had great influence in making the memory of his art enduring.

Among her most characteristic works are: “The Memories of the Oise,” 1864; “Ros-Bras,” “Finistère,” 1868; “A Young Girl at a Window,” 1870; a pastel, “Blanche,” 1873; “The Toilet,” and “A Young Woman at the Ball.”

NEY, ELIZABETH. The Fine Arts jury of the St. Louis Exposition have accepted three works by this sculptor to be placed in the Fine Arts Building. They are the Albert Sidney Johnston memorial; the portrait bust of Jacob Grimm, in marble; and a bronze statuette of Garibaldi. It is unusual to allow so many entries to one artist.

PAULI, HANNA, family name, Hirsch. Bronze medal at Paris Exposition, 1889. Born in Stockholm and pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts there; later, of Dagnan-Bouveret, in Paris. Her husband, also an artist, is Georg Pauli. They live in Stockholm, where she paints portraits and genre subjects.

At the Paris Exposition, 1900, she exhibited two excellent portraits, one of her father and another of Ellen Key; also a charming genre subject, “The Old Couple.”

ROMANI, JUANA, H. C. Born at Velletri, 1869. Pupil of Henner and Roybet, in Paris, where she lives. This artist is, sui generis, a daughter of the people, of unconventional tastes and habits. She has boldly reproduced upon canvas a fulness of life and joy, such as is rarely seen in pictures.

While she has caught something of the dash of Henner, and something of the color of Roybet, and gained a firm mastery of the best French technique, these are infused with the ardor of a Southern temperament. Her favorite subjects are women either in the strength and beauty of maternity, or in the freshness of youth, or even of childhood.

Some critics feel that, despite much that is desirable in her work, the soul is lacking in the women she paints. This is no doubt due in some measure to certain types she has chosen for example, Salome and Herodias, in whom one scarcely looks for such an element.

Her portrait of Roybet and a picture of “Bianca Capello” were exhibited at Munich in 1893 and at Antwerp in 1894. The “Pensierosa” and a little girl were at the Paris Salon in 1894, and were much admired. “Herodias” appeared at Vienna in 1894 and at Berlin the following year, while “Primavera” was first seen at the Salon of 1895. This picture laughs, as children laugh, with perfect abandon.

A portrait of Miss Gibson was also at the Salon of 1895, and “Vittoria Colonna” and a “Venetian Girl” were sent to Munich. These were followed by the “Flower of the Alps” and “Desdemona” in 1896; “Dona Mona,” palpitating with life, and “Faustalla of Pistoia,” with short golden hair and a majestic poise of the head, in 1897; “Salome” and “Angelica,” two widely differing pictures in character and color, in 1898; “Mina of Fiesole,” and the portrait of a golden-haired beauty in a costume of black and gold, in 1899; the portrait of Mlle. H. D., in 1900; “L’Infante,” one of her most noble creations, of a remarkably fine execution, and a ravishing child called “Roger” with wonderful blond hair in 1901.

Mlle. Romani often paints directly on the canvas without preliminary sketch or study, and sells many of her pictures before they are finished. Some of her works have been purchased by the French Government, and there are examples of these in the Luxembourg, and in the Gallery of Muelhausen.

RUPPRECHT, TINI. After having lessons from private instructors, this artist studied under Lenbach. She has been much influenced by Gainsborough, Lawrence, and Reynolds, traces of their manner being evident in her work. She renders the best type of feminine seductiveness with delicacy and grace; she avoids the trivial and gross, but pictures all the allurements of an innocent coquetry.

Her portrait of the Princess Marie, of Roumania, was exhibited in Munich in 1901; its reality and personality were notable, and one critic called it “an oasis in a desert of portraits.” “Anno 1793” and “A Mother and Child” have attracted much favorable comment in Munich, where her star is in the ascendant, and greater excellence in her work is confidently prophesied.

SCHWARTZE, THERESE. Honorable mention, Paris Salon, 1885; gold medal, 1889. Diploma at Ghent, 1892; gold medal, 1892. At International Exhibition, Barcelona, 1898, a gold medal. Made a Knight of the Order of Orange-Nassau, 1896. Born in Amsterdam about 1851. A pupil of her father until his death, when she became a student under Gabriel Max, in Munich, for a year. Returning to Amsterdam, she was much encouraged by Israels, Bilders, and Bosboom, friends of her father.

She went to Paris in 1878 and was so attracted by the artistic life which she saw that she determined to study there. But she did not succeed in finding a suitable studio, neither an instructor who pleased her, and she returned to Amsterdam. It was at this time that she painted the portrait of Frederick Mueller.

In the spring of 1880 she went again to Paris, only to “feast on things artistic.” A little later she was summoned to the palace at Soestdijk to instruct the Princess Henry of the Netherlands. In 1883 she served with many distinguished artists on the art jury of the International Exhibition at Amsterdam.

In 1884 she once more yielded to the attraction that Paris had for her, and there made a great advance in her painting. In 1885 she began to work in pastel, and one of her best portraits in this medium was that of the Princess (Queen) Wilhelmina, which was loaned by the Queen Regent for the exhibition of this artist’s work in Amsterdam in 1890.

The Italian Government requested Miss Schwartze to paint her own portrait for the Uffizi Gallery. This was shown at the Paris Salon, 1889, and missed the gold medal by two votes. This portrait is thought by some good judges to equal that of Mme. Le Brun. The head with the interesting eyes, shaded by the hand which wards off the light, and the penetrating, observant look, are most impressive.

She has painted a portrait of Queen Emma, and sent to Berlin in 1902 a portrait of Wolmaran, a member of the Transvaal Government, which was esteemed a work of the first rank. She has painted several portraits of her mother, which would have made for her a reputation had she done no others. She has had many notable men and women among her sitters, and though not a robust woman, she works incessantly without filling all the commissions offered her.

Her pictures are in the Museums of Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

Her work is full of life and strength, and her touch shows her confidence in herself and her technical knowledge. She is, however, a severe critic of her own work and is greatly disturbed by indiscriminating praise. She is serious and preoccupied in her studio, but with her friends she is full of gayety, and is greatly admired, both as a woman and as an artist.

VAN DER VEER, MISS. “This artist,” says a recent critic, “has studied to some purpose in excellent continental schools, and is endowed withal with a creative faculty and breadth in conception rarely found in American painters of either sex. Her genre work is full of life, light, color, and character, with picturesque grouping, faultless atmosphere, and a breadth of technical treatment that verges on audacity, yet never fails of its designed purpose.”

The fifty pictures exhibited by Miss Van der Veer in Philadelphia, in February, 1904, included interiors, portraits mostly in pastel flower studies and sketches, treating Dutch peasant life. Among the most notable of these may be mentioned “The Chimney Corner,” “Saturday Morning,” “Mother and Child,” and a portrait of the artist herself.

WALDAU, MARGARETHE. Born in Breslau, 1860. After studying by herself in Munich, this artist became a pupil of Streckfuss in Berlin, and later, in Nuremberg, studied under the younger Graeb and Ritter. The first subject chosen by her for a picture was the “Portal of the Church of the Magdalene.” Her taste for architectural motives was strengthened by travel in Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany.

The fine old churches of Nuremberg and the venerable edifices of Breslau afforded her most attractive subjects, which she treated with such distinction that her pictures were sought by kings and princes as well as by appreciative connoisseurs.

Her success increased her confidence in herself and enhanced the boldness and freedom with which she handled her brush. An exhibition of her work in Berlin led to her receiving a commission from the Government to paint two pictures for the Paris Exposition, 1900. “Mayence at Sunset” and the “Leipzig Market-Place in Winter” were the result of this order, and are two of her best works.

Occasionally this artist has painted genre subjects, but her real success has not been in this direction.