Read CHAPTERS VI of Gaspar Ruiz, free online book, by Joseph Conrad, on

“I knew those people by sight,” General Santierra would tell his guests at the dining-table.  “I mean the people with whom Gaspar Ruiz found shelter.  The father was an old Spaniard, a man of property, ruined by the revolution.  His estates, his house in town, his money, everything he had in the world had been confiscated by proclamation, for he was a bitter foe of our independence.  From a position of great dignity and influence on the Viceroy’s Council he became of less importance than his own negro slaves made free by our glorious revolution.  He had not even the means to flee the country, as other Spaniards had managed to do.  It may be that, wandering ruined and houseless, and burdened with nothing but his life, which was left to him by the clemency of the Provisional Government, he had simply walked under that broken roof of old tiles.  It was a lonely spot.  There did not seem to be even a dog belonging to the place.  But though the roof had holes, as if a cannonball or two had dropped through it, the wooden shutters were thick and tight-closed all the time.

“My way took me frequently along the path in front of that miserable rancho.  I rode from the fort to the town almost every evening, to sigh at the window of a lady I was in love with, then.  When one is young, you understand....  She was a good patriot, you may be sure.  Caballeros, credit me or not, political feeling ran so high in those days that I do not believe I could have been fascinated by the charms of a woman of Royalist opinions....”

Murmurs of amused incredulity all round the table interrupted the General; and while they lasted he stroked his white beard gravely.

“Senores,” he protested, “a Royalist was a monster to our overwrought feelings.  I am telling you this in order not to be suspected of the slightest tenderness towards that old Royalist’s daughter.  Moreover, as you know, my affections were engaged elsewhere.  But I could not help noticing her on rare occasions when with the front door open she stood in the porch.

“You must know that this old Royalist was as crazy as a man can be.  His political misfortunes, his total downfall and ruin, had disordered his mind.  To show his contempt for what we patriots could do, he affected to laugh at his imprisonment, at the confiscation of his lands, the burning of his houses, and the misery to which he and his womenfolk were reduced.  This habit of laughing had grown upon him, so that he would begin to laugh and shout directly he caught sight of any stranger.  That was the form of his madness.

“I, of course, disregarded the noise of that madman with that feeling of superiority the success of our cause inspired in us Americans.  I suppose I really despised him because he was an old Castilian, a Spaniard born, and a Royalist.  Those were certainly no reasons to scorn a man; but for centuries Spaniards born had shown their contempt of us Americans, men as well descended as themselves, simply because we were what they called colonists.  We had been kept in abasement and made to feel our inferiority in social intercourse.  And now it was our turn.  It was sale for us patriots to display the same sentiments; and I being a young patriot, son of a patriot, despised that old Spaniard, and despising him I naturally disregarded his abuse, though it was annoying to my feelings.  Others perhaps would not have been so forbearing.

“He would begin with a great yell ­’I see a patriot.  Another of them!’ long before I came abreast of the house.  The tone of his senseless revilings, mingled with bursts of laughter, was sometimes piercingly shrill and sometimes grave.  It was all very mad; but I felt it incumbent upon my dignity to check my horse to a walk without even glancing towards the house, as if that man’s abusive clamour in the porch were less than the barking of a cur.  I rode by, preserving an expression of haughty indifference on my face.

“It was no doubt very dignified; but I should have done better if I had kept my eyes open.  A military man in war time should never consider himself off duty; and especially so if the war is a revolutionary war, when the enemy is not at the door, but within your very house.  At such times the heat of passionate convictions, passing into hatred, removes the restraints of honour and humanity from many men and of delicacy and fear from some women.  These last, when once they throw off the timidity and reserve of their sex, become by the vivacity of their intelligence and the violence of their merciless resentment more dangerous than so many armed giants.”

The General’s voice rose, but his big hand stroked his white beard twice with an effect of venerable calmness.  “Si, senores!  Women are ready to rise to the heights of devotion unattainable by us men, or to sink into the depths of abasement which amazes our masculine prejudices.  I am speaking now of exceptional women, you understand...”

Here one of the guests observed that he had never met a woman yet who was not capable of turning out quite exceptional under circumstances that would engage her feelings strongly.  “That sort of superiority in recklessness they have over us,” he concluded, “makes of them the more interesting half of mankind.”

The General, who bore the interruption with gravity, nodded courteous assent.  “Si.  Si.  Under circumstances....  Precisely.  They can do an infinite deal of mischief sometimes in quite unexpected ways.  For who could have imagined that a young girl, daughter of a ruined Royalist whose life itself was held only by the contempt of his enemies, would have had the power to bring death and devastation upon two flourishing provinces and cause serious anxiety to the leaders of the revolution in the very hour of its success!” He paused to let the wonder of it penetrate our minds.

“Death and devastation,” somebody murmured in surprise:  “how shocking!”

The old General gave a glance in the direction of the murmur and went on.  “Yes.  That is, war ­calamity.  But the means by which she obtained the power to work this havoc on our southern frontier seem to me, who have seen her and spoken to her, still more shocking.  That particular thing left on my mind a dreadful amazement which the further experience of life, of more than fifty years, has done nothing to diminish.”  He looked round as if to make sure of our attention, and, in a changed voice:  “I am, as you know, a republican, son of a Liberator,” he declared.  “My incomparable mother, God rest her soul, was a Frenchwoman, the daughter of an ardent republican.  As a boy I fought for liberty; I’ve always believed in the equality of men; and as to their brotherhood, that, to my mind, is even more certain.  Look at the fierce animosity they display in their differences.  And what in the world do you know that is more bitterly fierce than brothers’ quarrels?”

All absence of cynicism checked an inclination to smile at this view of human brotherhood.  On the contrary, there was in the tone the melancholy natural to a man profoundly humane at heart who from duty, from conviction and from necessity, had played his part in scenes of ruthless violence.

The General had seen much of fratricidal strife.  “Certainly.  There is no doubt of their brotherhood,” he insisted.  “All men are brothers, and as such know almost too much of each other.  But “ ­and here in the old patriarchal head, white as silver, the black eyes humorously twinkled ­“if we are all brothers, all the women are not our sisters.”

One of the younger guests was heard murmuring his satisfaction at the fact.  But the General continued, with deliberate earnestness:  “They are so different!  The tale of a king who took a beggar-maid for a partner of his throne may be pretty enough as we men look upon ourselves and upon love.  But that a young girl, famous for her haughty beauty and, only a short time before, the admired of all at the balls in the Viceroy’s palace, should take by the hand a guasso, a common peasant, is intolerable to our sentiment of women and their love.  It is madness.  Nevertheless it happened.  But it must be said that in her case it was the madness of hate ­not of love.”

After presenting this excuse in a spirit of chivalrous justice, the General remained silent for a time.  “I rode past the house every day almost,” he began again, “and this was what was going on within.  But how it was going on no mind of man can conceive.  Her desperation must have been extreme, and Gaspar Ruiz was a docile fellow.  He had been an obedient soldier.  His strength was like an enormous stone lying on the ground, ready to be hurled this way that by the hand that picks it up.

“It is clear that he would tell his story to the people who gave him the shelter he needed.  And he needed assistance badly.  His wound was not dangerous, but his life was forfeited.  The old Royalist being wrapped up in his laughing madness, the two women arranged a hiding-place for the wounded man in one of the huts amongst the fruit trees at the back of the house.  That hovel, an abundance of clear water while the fever was on him, and some words of pity were all they could give.  I suppose he had a share of what food there was.  And it would be but little; a handful of roasted corn, perhaps a dish of beans, or a piece of bread with a few figs.  To such misery were those proud and once wealthy people reduced.”