Read CHAPTER VI.  JEAN DE BETHENCOURT, 1339-1425. of The Exploration of the World, free online book, by Jules Verne, on


The Norman cavalier ­His ideas of conquest ­What was known of the Canary Islands ­Cadiz ­The Canary Archipelago ­Graciosa ­ Lancerota ­Fortaventura ­Jean de Bethencourt returns to Spain ­ Revolt of Berneval ­His interview with King Henry III. ­Gadifer visits the Canary Archipelago ­Canary Island or “Gran Canaria” ­ Ferro Island ­Palma Island.

Jean de Bethencourt was born about the year 1339, at Eu in Normandy.  He was of good family, and Baron of St. Martin--Gaillard, and had distinguished himself both as a navigator and warrior; he was made chamberlain to Charles VI.  But his tastes were more for travelling than a life at court; he resolved to make himself a still more illustrious name by further conquests, and soon an opportunity offered for him to carry out his plans.

On the coast of Africa there is a group of islands called the Canaries, which were once known as the Fortunate Islands.  Juba, a son of one of the Numidian kings, is said to have been their first explorer, about the year of Rome 776.  In the middle ages, according to some accounts, Arabs, Genoese, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Biscayans, had partially visited this interesting group of islands.  In 1393, a Spanish gentleman named Almonaster, who was commanding an expedition, succeeded in landing on Lancerota, one of these islands, and brought back, with several prisoners, some produce which was a sufficient guarantee of the fertility of this archipelago.

The Norman cavalier now found the opening that he sought, and he determined to conquer the Canary Islands and try to convert the inhabitants to the Catholic faith.  He was as intelligent, brave, and full of resources as he was energetic; and leaving his house of Grainville-la-Teinturière at Caux, he went to La Rochelle, where he met the Chevalier Gadifer de la Salle, and having explained his project to him, they decided to go to the Canary Islands together.  Jean de Bethencourt having collected an army and made his preparations, and had vessels fitted out and manned, Gadifer and he set sail; after experiencing adverse winds on the way to the Île de Re, and being much harassed by the constant dissensions on board, they arrived at Viverò, and then at Corunna.  Here they remained eight days, then set sail again, and doubling Cape Finisterre, followed the Portuguese coast to Cape St. Vincent, and arrived at Cadiz, where they made a longer stay.  Here Bethencourt had a dispute with some Genoese merchants, who accused him of having taken their vessel, and he had to go to Seville, where King Henry III. heard his complaint and acquitted him from all blame.  On his return to Cadiz he found part of his crew in open mutiny, and some of his sailors so frightened that they refused to continue the voyage, so the chevalier sent back the cowardly sailors, and set sail with those who were more courageous.

The vessel in which Jean de Bethencourt sailed was becalmed for three days, then, the weather improving, he reached the island of Graziosa, one of the smaller of the Canary group, in five days, and then the larger island of Lancerota, which is nearly the same size as the island of Rhodes.  Lancerota has excellent pasturage, and arable land, which is particularly good for the cultivation of barley; its numerous fountains and cisterns are well supplied with excellent water.  The orchilla, which is so much used in dyeing, grows abundantly here.  The inhabitants of this island, who as a rule wear scarce any clothing, are tall and well-made, and the women, who wear leathern great-coats reaching to the ground, are very good-looking and honest.

The traveller, prior to disclosing his plans of conquest, wished to possess himself of some of the natives, but his ignorance of the country made this a difficult matter, so, anchoring under the shelter of a small island in the archipelago, he called a meeting of his companions to decide upon a plan of action.  They all agreed that the only thing to be done was to take some of the natives by fair means or foul.  Guardafia, the king of the island, treated Bethencourt more as a friend than a subject.  A castle or rather fort was built at the south-western extremity of the island, and some men left there under the command of Berthin de Berneval, while Bethencourt set out with the rest of his followers for the island of Erbania or Fortaventura.  Gadifer counselled a debarcation by night, which was done, and then he took the command of a small body of men and scoured the island with them for eight days without meeting one native, they having all fled to the mountains.  Provisions failing, Gadifer was forced to return, and he went to the island of Lobos between Lancerota and Fortaventura; but there his chief sailor mutinied and it was not without difficulty that Gadifer and Bethencourt reached the fort on Lancerota.

Bethencourt resolved to return to Spain to get provisions and a new contingent of soldiers, for his crew he could not depend upon; so he left Gadifer in command and set sail for Spain in one of Gadifer’s ships.

It will be remembered that Berthin de Berneval had been left in command of the fort on Lancerota Island.  Unfortunately he was Gadifer’s bitter enemy, and no sooner had Bethencourt set out than he tried to poison the minds of Gadifer’s men against him; he succeeded in inducing some, especially the Gascons, to revolt against the governor, who, quite innocent of Berneval’s base designs, was spending his time hunting sea-wolves on the island of Lobos with Remonnet de Leveden and several others.  Remonnet having been sent to Lancerota for provisions, found no Berneval there, he having deserted the island with his accomplices for a port on Graziosa, where a coxswain, deceived by his promises, had placed his vessel at his disposal.  From Graziosa, the traitor Berneval returned to Lancerota, and put the finishing stroke to his villany by pretending to make an alliance with the king of the island.  The king, thinking that no officer of Bethencourt’s, in whom he had implicit confidence, could deceive him, came with twenty-four of his subjects to see Berneval, who seized them when asleep, had them bound, and then carried them off to Graziosa.  The king managed to break his bonds, set three of his men free, and succeeded in escaping, but the remainder of his unfortunate companions were still prisoners, and Berneval gave them up to some Spanish thieves, who took them away to sell in a foreign land.

Berneval’s evil deeds did not stop here.  By his order the vessel that Gadifer had sent to the fort at Lancerota was seized; Remonnet tried resistance, but his numbers were too small, and his supplications were useless to prevent Berneval’s men, and even Berneval himself, from destroying all the arms, furniture, and goods, which Bethencourt had placed in the fort at Lancerota.  Insults were showered upon the governor, and Berneval cried, “I should like Gadifer de la Salle to know that if he were as young as I, I would kill him, but as he is not, I will spare him.  If he is put above me I shall have him drowned, and then he can fish for sea-wolves.”

Meanwhile, Gadifer and his ten companions were in danger of perishing on the island of Lobos for want of food and fresh water, but happily the two chaplains of the fort of Lancerota had gone to Graziosa, and met the coxswain, who had been the victim of Berneval’s treason, and he sent one of his men named Ximenes with them back to Lancerota.  There they found a small boat which they filled with provisions, and embarking with four men who were faithful to Gadifer, they succeeded in reaching Lobos, four leagues off, after a most dangerous passage.

Gadifer and his companions were suffering fearfully from hunger and thirst, when Ximenes arrived just in time to save them from perishing, and the governor learning Berneval’s treachery embarked in the boat for Lancerota, as soon as he was a little restored to health.  He was grieved at Berneval’s conduct towards the poor islanders whom Bethencourt and he had sworn to protect.  No! he never could have expected such wickedness in one who was looked upon as the most able of the whole band.

But what was Berneval doing meanwhile?  After having betrayed his master, he did the same to the companions who had aided him in his evil deeds; he had twelve of them killed and then he set out for Spain to rejoin Bethencourt and make his own case good by representing all that had happened in his own way.  It was to his interest to get rid of inconvenient witnesses, and therefore he abandoned his companions.  These unfortunate men at first meditated imploring the pardon of the governor; they confessed all to the chaplains, but then, fearing the consequences of their deeds, they seized a boat and fled towards Morocco.  The boat reached the coast of Barbary, where ten of the crew were drowned and the two others taken for slaves.

While all this was happening at Lancerota, Bethencourt arrived at Cadiz, where he took strong measures against his mutinous crew, and had the ringleaders imprisoned.  Then he sent his vessel to Seville, where King Henry III. was at that time; but the ship sank in the Guadalquiver, a great loss to Gadifer, her owner.

Bethencourt having arrived at Seville, met a certain Francisque Calve who had lately come from the Canaries, and who offered to return thither with all the things needed by the governor, but Bethencourt could not agree to this proposal before he had seen the king.

Just at this time, Berneval arrived with some of his accomplices, and some islanders whom he intended to sell as slaves.  He hoped to be able to deceive Bethencourt, but he had not reckoned upon a certain Courtille who was with him, who lost no time in denouncing the villany of Berneval, and on whose word the traitors were all imprisoned at Cadiz.  Courtille also told of the treatment that the poor islanders had received; as Bethencourt could not leave Seville till he had had an audience with the king, he gave orders that they should receive every kindness, but while these preliminaries were being concluded, the vessel that contained them was taken to Aragon, and they were sold for slaves.

Bethencourt obtained the audience that he sought with the king of Castille, and after telling him the result of his expedition he said, “Sire, I come to ask your assistance and your leave to conquer the Canary Islands for the Catholic faith, and as you are king and lord of all the surrounding country, and the nearest Christian king to these islands, I beg you to receive the homage of your humble servant.”  The king was very gracious to him and gave him dominion over these islands, and beyond this, a fifth of all the merchandise that should be brought from them to Spain.  He gave him 20,000 maravédis, about 600_l._, to buy all that he needed, and also the right to coin money in the Canary Islands.  Most unfortunately these 20,000 maravédis were confided to the care of a dishonest man, who fled to France, carrying the money with him.

However, Henry III. gave Bethencourt a well-rigged vessel manned by eighty men, and stocked with provisions, arms, &c.  He was most grateful for this fresh bounty, and sent Gadifer an account of all that had happened, and his extreme disappointment and disgust at Berneval’s conduct, in whom he had so much confidence, announcing at the same time the speedy departure of the vessel given by the King of Castille.

But meanwhile very serious troubles had arisen on Lancerota.  King Guardafia was so hurt at Berneval’s conduct that he had revolted, and some of Gadifer’s companions had been killed by the islanders.  Gadifer insisted upon these subjects being punished, when one of the king’s relations named Ache, came to him proposing to dethrone the king, and put himself in his place.  This Ache was a villain, who after having betrayed his king, proposed to betray the Normans, and to chase them from the country.  Gadifer had no suspicion of his motives; wishing to avenge the death of his men, he accepted Ache’s proposal, and a short time afterwards, on the vigil of St. Catherine’s day, the king was seized, and conveyed to the fort in chains.

Some days afterwards, Ache, the new king of the island attacked Gadifer’s companions, mortally wounding several of them, but the following night Guardafia having made his escape from the fort seized Ache, had him stoned to death, and his body burnt.  The governor (Gadifer) was so grieved by these scenes of violence, which were renewed daily, that he resolved to kill all the men on the island, and save only the women and children, whom he hoped to have baptized.  But just at this time, the vessel that Bethencourt had freighted for the governor arrived, and brought besides the eighty men, provisions, &c., a letter which told him among other things that Bethencourt had done homage to the King of Castille for the Canary Islands.  The governor was not well pleased at this news, for he thought that he ought to have had his share in the islands; but he concealed his displeasure, and gave the new comers a hearty welcome.

The arms were at once disembarked, and then Gadifer went on board the vessel to explore the neighbouring islands.  Remonnet and several others joined him in this expedition, and they took two of the islanders with them to serve as guides.

They arrived safely at Fortaventura island; a few days after landing on the island, Gadifer set out with thirty-five men to explore the country; but soon the greater part of his followers deserted him, only thirteen men, including two archers, remaining with him.  But he did not give up his project; after wading through a large stream, he found himself in a lovely valley shaded by numberless palm-trees; here having rested and refreshed himself, he set out again and climbed a hill.  At the summit he found about fifty natives, who surrounded the small party and threatened to murder them.  Gadifer and his companions showed no signs of fear, and succeeded in putting their enemies to flight; by the evening they were able to regain their vessel, carrying away four of the native women as prisoners.

The next day Gadifer left the island and went to the Gran Canaria island anchoring in a large harbour lying between Telde and Argonney.  Five hundred of the natives confronted them, but apparently with no hostile intentions; they gave them some fish-hooks and old iron in exchange for some of the natural productions of the island, such as figs, and dragon’s blood, a resinous substance taken from the dragon-tree, which has a very pleasant balsamic odour.  The natives were very much on their guard with the strangers, for twenty years before this some of Captain Lopez’ men had invaded the island; so they would not allow Gadifer to land.

The governor was obliged to weigh anchor without exploring the island; he went to Ferro Island, and coasting along it arrived next at Gomera; it was night, and the sailors were attracted by the fires that the natives had lighted on the shore.  When day broke Gadifer and his companions wished to land; but the islanders would not allow them to proceed when they reached the shore, and drove them back to their vessel.  Much disappointed by his reception, Gadifer determined to make another attempt at Ferro Island; there he found that he could land without opposition, and he remained on the island twenty-two days.  The interior of the island was very beautiful.  Pine-trees grew in abundance, and clear streams of water added to its fertility.  Quails were found in large numbers, as well as pigs, goats, and sheep.

From this fertile island the party of explorers went to Palma, and anchored in a harbour situated to the right of a large river.  This is the furthest island of the Canary group; it is covered with pine and dragon-trees; from the abundance of fresh water the pasturage is excellent and the land might be cultivated with much profit.  Its inhabitants are a tall, robust race, well made, with good features and very white skin.  Gadifer remained a short time on this island; on leaving it he spent two days and two nights sailing round the other islands, and then returned to the fort on Lancerota.  They had been absent three months.  In the meantime, those of the party who had been left in the fort had waged a petty war with the natives, and had made a great number of prisoners.  The Canarians, demoralized, now came daily to cast themselves on their mercy, and to pray for the consecration of baptism.  Gadifer was so pleased to hear of this, that he sent one of his companions to Spain to inform Bethencourt of the state of the colony.


The return of Jean de Bethencourt ­Gadifer’s jealousy ­Bethencourt visits his archipelago ­Gadifer goes to conquer Gran Canaria ­ Disagreement of the two commanders ­Their return to Spain ­Gadifer blamed by the King ­Return of Bethencourt ­The natives of Fortaventura are baptized ­Bethencourt revisits Caux ­Returns to Lancerota ­Lands on the African coast ­Conquest of Gran Canaria, Ferro, and Palma Islands ­Maciot appointed Governor of the archipelago ­Bethencourt obtains the Pope’s consent to the Canary Islands being made an Episcopal See ­His return to his country and his death.

The envoy had not reached Cadiz when Bethencourt landed at the fort on Lancerota.  Gadifer gave him a hearty welcome, and so did the Canary islanders who had been baptized.  A few days afterwards, King Guardafia came and threw himself on their mercy.  He was baptized on the 20th of February, 1404, with all his followers.  Bethencourt’s chaplains drew up a very simple form of instruction for their use, embracing the principal elements of Christianity, the creation, Adam and Eve’s fall, the history of Noah, the lives of the patriarchs, the life of our Saviour and His crucifixion by the Jews, finishing with an exhortation to believe the ten commandments, the Holy Sacrament of the Altar, Easter, confession, and some other points.

Bethencourt was an ambitious man.  Not content with having explored, and so to speak, gained possession of the Canary Islands, he desired to conquer the African countries bordering on the ocean.  This was his secret wish in returning to Lancerota, and meanwhile, he had full occupation in establishing his authority in these islands, of which he was only the nominal sovereign.  He gave himself wholly to the task, and first visited the islands which Gadifer had explored.

But before he set out, a conversation took place between Gadifer and himself, which we must not omit to notice.  Gadifer began boasting of all he had done, and asked for the gift of Fortaventura, Teneriffe, and Gomera Islands, as a recompense.

“My friend,” replied Bethencourt, “the islands that you ask me to give you are not yet conquered, but I do not intend you to be at any loss for your trouble, nor that you should be unrequited; but let us accomplish our project, and meanwhile remain the friends we have always been.”

“That is all very well,” replied Gadifer, “but there is one point on which I do not feel at all satisfied, and that is that you have done homage to the King of Castille for these islands, and so you call yourself absolute master over them.”

“With regard to that,” said Bethencourt, “I certainly have done homage for them, and so I am their rightful master, but if you will only patiently wait the end of our affair, I will give you what I feel sure will quite content you.”

“I shall not remain here,” replied Gadifer, “I am going back to France, and have no wish to be here any longer.”

Upon this they separated, but Gadifer gradually cooled down and agreed to accompany Bethencourt in his exploration of the islands.

They set out for Fortaventura well armed and with plenty of provisions.  They remained there three months, and began by seizing a number of the natives, and sending them to Lancerota.  This was such a usual mode of proceeding at that time that we are less surprised at it than we should be at the present day.  The whole island was explored and a fort named Richeroque built on the slope of a high mountain; traces of it may still be found in a hamlet there.

Just at this time, and when he had scarcely had time to forget his grievances and ill-humour, Gadifer accepted the command of a small band of men who were to conquer Gran Canaria.

He set out on the 25th July, 1404, but this expedition was not fated to meet with any good results, winds and waves were against it.  At last they reached the port of Telde, but as it was nearly dark and a strong wind blowing they dared not land, and they went on to the little town of Aginmez, where they remained eleven days at anchor; the natives, encouraged by their king, laid an ambush for Gadifer and his followers; there was a skirmish, blood was shed, and the Castilians, feeling themselves outnumbered, went to Telde for two days, and thence to Lancerota.

Gadifer was much disappointed at his want of success, and began to be discontented with everything around him.  Above all, his jealousy of Bethencourt increased daily, and he gave way to violent recriminations, saying openly that the chief had not done everything himself, and that things would not have been in so advanced a stage as they were if others had not aided him.  This reached Bethencourt’s ears; he was much incensed, and reproached Gadifer.  High words followed, Gadifer insisted upon leaving the country, and as Bethencourt had just made arrangements for returning to Spain, he proposed to Gadifer to accompany him, that their cause of disagreement might be inquired into.  This proposal being accepted, they set sail, but each in his own ship.  When they reached Seville, Gadifer laid his complaints before the king, but as the king gave judgment against him, fully approving of Bethencourt’s conduct, he left Spain, and returning to France, never revisited the Canary Islands which he had so fondly hoped to conquer for himself.

Bethencourt took leave of the king almost at the same time, for the new colony demanded his immediate presence there; but before he left, the inhabitants of Seville, with whom he was a great favourite, showed him much kindness; what he valued more highly than anything else was the supply of arms, gold, silver, and provisions that they gave him.  He went to Fortaventura, where his companions were delighted to see him.  Gadifer had left his son Hannibal in his place, but Bethencourt treated him with much cordiality.

The first days of the installation of Bethencourt were far from peaceful; skirmishes were of constant occurrence, the natives even destroying the fortress of Richeroque, after burning and pillaging a chapel.  Bethencourt was determined to overcome them, and in the end succeeded.  He sent for several of his men from Lancerota, and gave orders that the fortress should be rebuilt.

In spite of all this the combats began again, and many of the islanders fell, among others a giant of nine feet high, whom Bethencourt would have liked to have made prisoner.  The governor could not trust Gadifer’s son nor the men who followed him, for Hannibal seemed to have inherited his father’s jealousy, but as Bethencourt needed his help, he concealed his distrust.  Happily, Bethencourt’s men outnumbered those who were faithful to Gadifer, but Hannibal’s taunts became so unbearable that Jean de Courtois was sent to remind him of his oath of obedience and to advise him to keep it.

Courtois was very badly received, he having a crow to pick with Hannibal with regard to some native prisoners whom Gadifer’s followers had kept and would not give up.  Hannibal was obliged to obey the orders, but Courtois represented his conduct to Bethencourt on his return in the very worst light, and tried to excite his master’s anger against him.  “No, sir,” answered the upright Bethencourt, “I do not wish him to be wronged, we must never carry our power to its utmost limits, we should always endeavour to control ourselves and preserve our honour rather than seek for profit.”

In spite of these intestine discords, the war continued between the natives and the conquerors, but the latter being well-armed always came off victorious.  The kings of Fortaventura sent a native to Bethencourt saying that they wished to make peace with him, and to become Christians.  This news delighted the conqueror, and he sent word that they would be well received if they would come to him.  Almost immediately on receiving this reply, King Maxorata, who governed the north-westerly part of the island, set out, and with his suite of twenty-two persons, was baptized on the 18th of January, 1405.  Three days afterwards twenty-two other natives received the sacrament of baptism.  On the 25th of January the king who governed the peninsula of Handia, the south-eastern part of the island, came with twenty-six of his subjects, and was baptized.  In a short time all the inhabitants of Fortaventura had embraced the Christian religion.

Bethencourt was so elated with these happy results, that he arranged to revisit his own country, leaving Courtois as governor during his absence.  He set out on the last day of January amid the prayers and blessings of his people, taking with him three native men and one woman, to whom he wished to show something of France.  He reached Harfleur in twenty-one days, and two days later was at his own house, where he only intended making a short stay, and then returning to the Canary Islands.  He met with a very warm reception from everybody.  One of his chief motives in returning to France was the hope of finding people of all classes ready to return with him, on the promise of grants of land in the island.  He succeeded in finding a certain number of emigrants, amongst whom were twenty-eight soldiers, of whom twenty-three took their wives.  Two vessels were prepared to transport the party, and the 6th of May was the day named for them to set out.  On the 9th of May they set sail, and landed on Lancerota just four mouths and a half after Bethencourt had quitted it.

He was received with trumpets, clarionets, tambourines, harps, and other musical instruments.  Thunder could scarcely have been heard above the sound of this music.  The natives celebrated his return by dancing and singing, and crying out, “Here comes our king.”  Jean de Courtois hastened to welcome his master, who asked him how everything was going on; he replied, “Sir, all is going on as well as possible.”

Bethencourt’s companions stayed with him at the fort of Lancerota; they appeared much pleased with the country, enjoying the dates and other fruits on the island, “and nothing seemed to harm them.”  After they had been a short time at Lancerota, Bethencourt went with them to see Fortaventura, and here his reception was as warm as it had been at Lancerota, especially from the islanders and their two kings.  The kings supped with them at the fortress of Richeroque, which Courtois had rebuilt.

Bethencourt announced his intention of conquering Gran Canaria Island, as he had done Lancerota and Fortaventura; his hope was that his nephew Maciot, whom he had brought with him from France, would succeed him in the government of these islands, so that the name of Bethencourt might be perpetuated there.  He imparted his project to Courtois, who highly approved of it, and added, “Sir, when you return to France, I will go with you.  I am a bad husband.  It is five years since I saw my wife, and, by my troth, she did not much care about it.”

The 6th of October, 1405, was the day fixed for starting for Gran Canaria, but contrary winds carried the ships towards the African coast, and they passed by Cape Bojador, where Bethencourt landed.  He made an expedition twenty-four miles inland, and seized some natives and a great number of camels that he took to his vessels.  They put as many of the camels as possible on board, wishing to acclimatize them in the Canary Islands, and the baron set sail again, leaving Cape Bojador, which he had the honour of seeing thirty years before the Portuguese navigators.

During this voyage from the coast of Africa to Gran Canaria, the three vessels were separated in stormy weather, one going to Palma, and another to Fortaventura, but finally they all reached Gran Canaria.  This island is sixty miles long and thirty-six miles broad; at the northern end it is flat, but very hilly towards the south.  Firs, dragon-trees, olive, fig, and date-trees form large forests, and sheep, goats, and wild dogs are found here in large numbers.  The soil is very fertile, and produces two crops of corn every year, and that without any means of improving it.  Its inhabitants form a large body of people, and consider themselves all on an equality.

When Bethencourt had landed he set to work at once to conquer the island.  Unfortunately his Norman soldiers were so proud of their success on the coast of Africa, that they thought they could conquer this island with its ten thousand natives, with a mere handful of men.  Bethencourt seeing that they were so confident of success, recommended them to be prudent, but they took no heed of this and bitterly they rued their confidence.  After a skirmish, in which they seemed to have got the better of the islanders, they had left their ranks, when the natives surprised them, massacring twenty-two of them, including Jean de Courtois and Hannibal, Gadifer’s son.

After this sad affair Bethencourt left Gran Canaria and went to try to subdue Palma.  The natives of this island were very clever in slinging stones, rarely missing their aim, and in the encounters with these islanders many fell on both sides, but more natives than Normans, whose loss, however, amounted to one hundred.

After six weeks of skirmishing, Bethencourt left Palma, and went to Ferro for three months, a large island twenty-one miles long and fifteen broad.  It is a flat table-land, and large woods of pine and laurel-trees shade it in many places.  The mists, which are frequent, moisten the soil and make it especially favourable for the cultivation of corn and the vine.  Game is abundant; pigs, goats, and sheep run wild about the country; there are also great lizards in shape like the iguana of America.  The inhabitants both men and women are a very fine race, healthy, lively, agile and particularly well made, in fact Ferro is one of the pleasantest islands of the group.

Bethencourt returned to Fortaventura with his ships after conquering Ferro and Palma.  This island is fifty-one miles in length by twenty-four in breadth, and has high mountains as well as large plains, but its surface is less undulating than that of the other islands.  Large streams of fresh water run through the island; the euphorbia, a deadly poison, grows largely here, and date and olive-trees are abundant, as well as a plant that is invaluable for dyeing and whose cultivation would be most remunerative.  The coast of Fortaventura has no good harbours for large vessels, but small ones can anchor there quite safely.  It was in this island that Bethencourt began to make a partition of land to the colonists, and he succeeded in doing it so evenly that every one was satisfied with his portion.  Those colonists whom he had brought with him were to be exempted from taxes for nine years.

The question of religion, and religious administration could not fail to be of the deepest interest to so pious a man as Bethencourt, so he resolved to go to Rome and try to obtain a bishop for this country, who “would order and adorn the Roman Catholic faith.”  Before setting out he appointed his nephew Maciot as lieutenant and governor of the islands.  Under his orders two sergeants were to act, and enforce justice; he desired that twice a year news of the colony should be sent to him in Normandy, and the revenue from Lancerota and Fortaventura was to be devoted to building two churches.  He said to his nephew Maciot, “I give you full authority in everything to do whatever you think best, and I believe you will do all for my honour and to my advantage.  Follow as nearly as possible Norman and French customs, especially in the administration of justice.  Above all things, try and keep peace and unity among yourselves, and care for each other as brothers, and specially try that there shall be no rivalry among the gentlemen; I have given to each one his share and the country is quite large enough for each to have his own sphere.  I can tell you nothing further beyond again impressing the importance of your all living as good friends together, and then all will be well.”

Bethencourt remained three months in Fortaventura and the other islands.  He rode about among the people on his mule, and found many of the natives beginning to speak Norman-French.  Maciot and the other gentlemen accompanied him, he pointing out what was best to be done and the most honest way of doing it.  Then he gave notice that he would set out for Rome on the ensuing 15th of December.  Returning to Lancerota, he remained there till his departure, and ordered all the gentlemen he had brought with him, the workmen, and the three kings to appear before him two days before his departure, to tell them what he wished done, and to commend himself and them to God’s protection.

None failed to appear at this meeting; they were all received at the fort on Lancerota, and sumptuously entertained.  When the repast was over, he spoke to them, especially impressing the duty of obedience to his nephew Maciot upon them, the retention of the fifth of everything for himself, and also the exercise of all Christian virtues and of fervent love to God.  This done, he chose those who were to accompany him to Rome, and prepared to set out.

His vessel had scarcely set sail when cries and groans were heard on all sides, both Europeans and natives alike regretting this just master, who they feared would never return to them.  A great number waded into the water, and tried to stop the vessel that carried him away from them, but the sails were set and Bethencourt was really gone.  “May God keep him safe from all harm,” was the utterance of many that day.  In a week he was at Seville, from thence he went to Valladolid, where the king received him very graciously.  He related the narrative of his conquests to the king, and requested from him letters recommending him to the Pope, that he might have a bishop appointed for the islands.  The king gave him the letters, and loaded him with gifts, and then Bethencourt set out for Rome with a numerous retinue.

He remained three weeks in the eternal city, and was admitted to kiss Pope Innocent VII.’s foot, who complimented him on his having made so many prosélytes to the Christian faith, and on his bravery in having ventured so far from his native country.  When the bulls were prepared as Bethencourt had requested, and Albert des Maisons was appointed Bishop of the Canary Islands, the Norman took leave of the Pope after receiving his blessing.

The new prelate took leave of Bethencourt, and set out at once for his diocese.  He went by way of Spain, taking with him some letters from Bethencourt to the king.  Then he set sail for Fortaventura and arrived there without any obstacle.  Maciot gave him a cordial reception, and the bishop at once began to organize his diocese, governing with gentleness and courtesy, preaching now in one island, now in another, and offering up public prayers for Bethencourt’s safety.  Maciot was universally beloved, but especially by the natives.  This happy, peaceful time only lasted for five years, for later on, Maciot began to abuse his unlimited power, and levied such heavy exactions that he was obliged to fly the country to save his life.

Bethencourt after leaving Rome went to Florence and to Paris, and then to his own chateau, where a great number of people came to pay their respects to the king of the Canary Islands, and if on his return the first time he was much thought of, his reception this second time far exceeded it.  Bethencourt established himself at Grainville; although he was an old man, his wife was still young.  He had frequent accounts from Maciot of his beloved islands, and he hoped one day to return to his kingdom, but God willed otherwise.  One day in the year 1425 he was seized with what proved to be fatal illness; he was aware that the end was near; and after making his will and receiving the last sacraments of the church he passed away.  “May God keep him and pardon his sins,” says the narrative of his life; “he is buried in the church of Grainville la Teinturière, in front of the high altar.”