Read CHAPTER XLV of The Gilded Age, free online book, by Mark Twain, on

The galleries of the House were packed, on the momentous day, not because the reporting of an important bill back by a committee was a thing to be excited about, if the bill were going to take the ordinary course afterward; it would be like getting excited over the empaneling of a coroner’s jury in a murder case, instead of saving up one’s emotions for the grander occasion of the hanging of the accused, two years later, after all the tedious forms of law had been gone through with.

But suppose you understand that this coroner’s jury is going to turn out to be a vigilance committee in disguise, who will hear testimony for an hour and then hang the murderer on the spot?  That puts a different aspect upon the matter.  Now it was whispered that the legitimate forms of procedure usual in the House, and which keep a bill hanging along for days and even weeks, before it is finally passed upon, were going to be overruled, in this case, and short work made of the, measure; and so, what was beginning as a mere inquest might, torn out to be something very different.

In the course of the day’s business the Order of “Reports of Committees” was finally reached and when the weary crowds heard that glad announcement issue from the Speaker’s lips they ceased to fret at the dragging delay, and plucked up spirit.  The Chairman of the Committee on Benevolent Appropriations rose and made his report, and just then a blue-uniformed brass-mounted little page put a note into his hand.

It was from Senator Dilworthy, who had appeared upon the floor of the House for a moment and flitted away again: 

     “Everybody expects a grand assault in force; no doubt you believe,
     as I certainly do, that it is the thing to do; we are strong, and
     everything is hot for the contest.  Trollop’s espousal of our cause
     has immensely helped us and we grow in power constantly.  Ten of the
     opposition were called away from town about noon,(but ­so it is
     said ­only for one day).  Six others are sick, but expect to be
     about again tomorrow or next day, a friend tells me.  A bold
     onslaught is worth trying.  Go for a suspension of the rules!  You
     will find we can swing a two-thirds vote ­I am perfectly satisfied
     of it.  The Lord’s truth will prevail. 

Mr. Buckstone had reported the bills from his committee, one by one, leaving the bill to the last.  When the House had voted upon the acceptance or rejection of the report upon all but it, and the question now being upon its disposal ­Mr. Buckstone begged that the House would give its attention to a few remarks which he desired to make.  His committee had instructed him to report the bill favorably; he wished to explain the nature of the measure, and thus justify the committee’s action; the hostility roused by the press would then disappear, and the bill would shine forth in its true and noble character.  He said that its provisions were simple.  It incorporated the Knobs Industrial University, locating it in East Tennessee, declaring it open to all persons without distinction of sex, color or religion, and committing its management to a board of perpetual trustees, with power to fill vacancies in their own number.  It provided for the erection of certain buildings for the University, dormitories, lecture-halls, museums, libraries, laboratories, work-shops, furnaces, and mills.  It provided also for the purchase of sixty-five thousand acres of land, (fully described) for the purposes of the University, in the Knobs of East Tennessee.  And it appropriated [blank] dollars for the purchase of the Land, which should be the property of the national trustees in trust for the uses named.

Every effort had been made to secure the refusal of the whole amount of the property of the Hawkins heirs in the Knobs, some seventy-five thousand acres Mr. Buckstone said.  But Mr. Washington Hawkins (one of the heirs) objected.  He was, indeed, very reluctant to sell any part of the land at any price; and indeed ­this reluctance was justifiable when one considers how constantly and how greatly the property is rising in value.

What the South needed, continued Mr. Buckstone, was skilled labor.  Without that it would be unable to develop its mines, build its roads, work to advantage and without great waste its fruitful land, establish manufactures or enter upon a prosperous industrial career.  Its laborers were almost altogether unskilled.  Change them into intelligent, trained workmen, and you increased at once the capital, the resources of the entire south, which would enter upon a prosperity hitherto unknown.  In five years the increase in local wealth would not only reimburse the government for the outlay in this appropriation, but pour untold wealth into the treasury.

This was the material view, and the least important in the honorable gentleman’s opinion. [Here he referred to some notes furnished him by Senator Dilworthy, and then continued.] God had given us the care of these colored millions.  What account should we render to Him of our stewardship?  We had made them free.  Should we leave them ignorant?  We had cast them upon their own resources.  Should we leave them without tools?  We could not tell what the intentions of Providence are in regard to these peculiar people, but our duty was plain.  The Knobs Industrial University would be a vast school of modern science and practice, worthy of a great nation.  It would combine the advantages of Zurich, Freiburg, Creuzot and the Sheffield Scientific.  Providence had apparently reserved and set apart the Knobs of East Tennessee for this purpose.  What else were they for?  Was it not wonderful that for more than thirty years, over a generation, the choicest portion of them had remained in one family, untouched, as if, separated for some great use!

It might be asked why the government should buy this land, when it had millions of yes, more than the railroad companies desired, which, it might devote to this purpose?  He answered, that the government had no such tract of land as this.  It had nothing comparable to it for the purposes of the University:  This was to be a school of mining, of engineering, of the working of metals, of chemistry, zoology, botany, manufactures, agriculture, in short of all the complicated industries that make a state great.  There was no place for the location of such a school like the Knobs of East Tennessee.  The hills abounded in metals of all sorts, iron in all its combinations, copper, bismuth, gold and silver in small quantities, platinum he ­believed, tin, aluminium; it was covered with forests and strange plants; in the woods were found the coon, the opossum, the fox, the deer and many other animals who roamed in the domain of natural history; coal existed in enormous quantity and no doubt oil; it was such a place for the practice of agricultural experiments that any student who had been successful there would have an easy task in any other portion of the country.

No place offered equal facilities for experiments in mining, metallurgy, engineering.  He expected to live to see the day, when the youth of the south would resort to its mines, its workshops, its laboratories, its furnaces and factories for practical instruction in all the great industrial pursuits.

A noisy and rather ill-natured debate followed, now, and lasted hour after hour.  The friends of the bill were instructed by the leaders to make no effort to check it; it was deemed better strategy to tire out the opposition; it was decided to vote down every proposition to adjourn, and so continue the sitting into the night; opponents might desert, then, one by one and weaken their party, for they had no personal stake in the bill.

Sunset came, and still the fight went on; the gas was lit, the crowd in the galleries began to thin, but the contest continued; the crowd returned, by and by, with hunger and thirst appeased, and aggravated the hungry and thirsty House by looking contented and comfortable; but still the wrangle lost nothing of its bitterness.  Recesses were moved plaintively by the opposition, and invariably voted down by the University army.

At midnight the House presented a spectacle calculated to interest a stranger.  The great galleries were still thronged ­though only with men, now; the bright colors that had made them look like hanging gardens were gone, with the ladies.  The reporters’ gallery, was merely occupied by one or two watchful sentinels of the quill-driving guild; the main body cared nothing for a debate that had dwindled to a mere vaporing of dull speakers and now and then a brief quarrel over a point of order; but there was an unusually large attendance of journalists in the reporters’ waiting-room, chatting, smoking, and keeping on the ‘qui vive’ for the general irruption of the Congressional volcano that must come when the time was ripe for it.  Senator Dilworthy and Philip were in the Diplomatic Gallery; Washington sat in the public gallery, and Col.  Sellers was, not far away.  The Colonel had been flying about the corridors and button-holing Congressmen all the evening, and believed that he had accomplished a world of valuable service; but fatigue was telling upon him, now, and he was quiet and speechless ­for once.  Below, a few Senators lounged upon the sofas set apart for visitors, and talked with idle Congressmen.  A dreary member was speaking; the presiding officer was nodding; here and there little knots of members stood in the aisles, whispering together; all about the House others sat in all the various attitudes that express weariness; some, tilted back, had one or more legs disposed upon their desks; some sharpened pencils indolently; some scribbled aimlessly; some yawned and stretched; a great many lay upon their breasts upon the desks, sound asleep and gently snoring.  The flooding gaslight from the fancifully wrought roof poured down upon the tranquil scene.  Hardly a sound disturbed the stillness, save the monotonous eloquence of the gentleman who occupied the floor.  Now and then a warrior of the opposition broke down under the pressure, gave it up, and went home.

Mr. Buckstone began to think it might be safe, now, to “proceed to business.”  He consulted with Trollop and one or two others.  Senator Dilworthy descended to the floor of the House and they went to meet him.  After a brief comparison of notes, the Congressmen sought their seats and sent pages about the House with messages to friends.  These latter instantly roused up, yawned, and began to look alert.  The moment the floor was unoccupied, Mr. Buckstone rose, with an injured look, and said it was evident that the opponents of the bill were merely talking against time, hoping in this unbecoming way to tire out the friends of the measure and so defeat it.  Such conduct might be respectable enough in a village debating society, but it was trivial among statesmen, it was out of place in so august an assemblage as the House of Representatives of the United States.  The friends of the bill had been not only willing that its opponents should express their opinions, but had strongly desired it.  They courted the fullest and freest discussion; but it seemed to him that this fairness was but illy appreciated, since gentlemen were capable of taking advantage of it for selfish and unworthy ends.  This trifling had gone far enough.  He called for the question.

The instant Mr. Buckstone sat down, the storm burst forth.  A dozen gentlemen sprang to their feet.

“Mr. Speaker!”

“Mr. Speaker!”

“Mr. Speaker!”

“Order!  Order!  Order!  Question!  Question!”

The sharp blows of the Speaker’s gavel rose above the din.

The “previous question,” that hated gag, was moved and carried.  All debate came to a sudden end, of course.  Triumph N.

Then the vote was taken on the adoption of the report and it carried by a surprising majority.

Mr. Buckstone got the floor again and moved that the rules be suspended and the bill read a first time.

Mr. Trollop ­“Second the motion!”

The Speaker ­“It is moved and ­”

Clamor of Voices.  “Move we adjourn!  Second the motion!  Adjourn! 
Adjourn!  Order!  Order!”

The Speaker, (after using his gavel vigorously) ­“It is moved and seconded that the House do now adjourn.  All those in favor ­”

Voices ­“Division!  Division!  Ayes and nays!  Ayes and nays!”

It was decided to vote upon the adjournment by ayes and nays.  This was in earnest.  The excitement was furious.  The galleries were in commotion in an instant, the reporters swarmed to their places.  Idling members of the House flocked to their seats, nervous gentlemen sprang to their feet, pages flew hither and thither, life and animation were visible everywhere, all the long ranks of faces in the building were kindled.

“This thing decides it!” thought Mr. Buckstone; “but let the fight proceed.”

The voting began, and every sound ceased but the calling if the names and the “Aye!” “No!” “No!” “Aye!” of the responses.  There was not a movement in the House; the people seemed to hold their breath.

The voting ceased, and then there was an interval of dead silence while the clerk made up his count.  There was a two-thirds vote on the University side ­and two over.

The Speaker ­“The rules are suspended, the motion is carried ­first reading of the bill!”

By one impulse the galleries broke forth into stormy applause, and even some of the members of the House were not wholly able to restrain their feelings.  The Speaker’s gavel came to the rescue and his clear voice followed: 

“Order, gentlemen !  The House will come to order!  If spectators offend again, the Sergeant-at-arms will clear the galleries!”

Then he cast his eyes aloft and gazed at some object attentively for a moment.  All eyes followed the direction of the Speaker’s, and then there was a general titter.  The Speaker said: 

“Let the Sergeant-at Arms inform the gentleman that his conduct is an infringement of the dignity of the House ­and one which is not warranted by the state of the weather.”  Poor Sellers was the culprit.  He sat in the front seat of the gallery, with his arms and his tired body overflowing the balustrade ­sound asleep, dead to all excitements, all disturbances.  The fluctuations of the Washington weather had influenced his dreams, perhaps, for during the recent tempest of applause he had hoisted his gingham umbrella, and calmly gone on with his slumbers.  Washington Hawkins had seen the act, but was not near enough at hand to save his friend, and no one who was near enough desired to spoil the effect.  But a neighbor stirred up the Colonel, now that the House had its eye upon him, and the great speculator furled his tent like the Arab.  He said: 

“Bless my soul, I’m so absent-minded when I, get to thinking!  I never wear an umbrella in the house ­did anybody ‘notice it’?  What-asleep?  Indeed?  And did you wake me sir?  Thank you ­thank you very much indeed.  It might have fallen out of my hands and been injured.  Admirable article, sir ­present from a friend in Hong Kong; one doesn’t come across silk like that in this country ­it’s the real ­Young Hyson, I’m told.”

By this time the incident was forgotten, for the House was at war again.  Victory was almost in sight, now, and the friends of the bill threw themselves into their work with enthusiasm.  They soon moved and carried its second reading, and after a strong, sharp fight, carried a motion to go into Committee of the whole.  The Speaker left his place, of course, and a chairman was appointed.

Now the contest raged hotter than ever ­for the authority that compels order when the House sits as a House, is greatly diminished when it sits as Committee.  The main fight came upon the filling of the blanks with the sum to be appropriated for the purchase of the land, of course.

Buckstone ­“Mr. Chairman, I move you, sir, that the words ’three millions of’ be inserted.”

Mr. Hadley ­“Mr. Chairman, I move that the words two and a half dollars be inserted.”

Mr. Clawson ­“Mr. Chairman, I move the insertion of the words five and twenty cents, as representing the true value of this barren and isolated tract of desolation.”

The question, according to rule, was taken upon the smallest sum first.  It was lost.

Then upon the nest smallest sum.  Lost, also.

And then upon the three millions.  After a vigorous battle that lasted a considerable time, this motion was carried.

Then, clause by clause the bill was read, discussed, and amended in trifling particulars, and now the Committee rose and reported.

The moment the House had resumed its functions and received the report, Mr. Buckstone moved and carried the third reading of the bill.

The same bitter war over the sum to be paid was fought over again, and now that the ayes and nays could be called and placed on record, every man was compelled to vote by name on the three millions, and indeed on every paragraph of the bill from the enacting clause straight through.  But as before, the friends of the measure stood firm and voted in a solid body every time, and so did its enemies.

The supreme moment was come, now, but so sure was the result that not even a voice was raised to interpose an adjournment.  The enemy were totally demoralized.  The bill was put upon its final passage almost without dissent, and the calling of the ayes and nays began.  When it was ended the triumph was complete ­the two-thirds vote held good, and a veto was impossible, as far as the House was concerned!

Mr. Buckstone resolved that now that the nail was driven home, he would clinch it on the other side and make it stay forever.  He moved a reconsideration of the vote by which the bill had passed.  The motion was lost, of course, and the great Industrial University act was an accomplished fact as far as it was in the power of the House of Representatives to make it so.

There was no need to move an adjournment.  The instant the last motion was decided, the enemies of the University rose and flocked out of the Hall, talking angrily, and its friends flocked after them jubilant and congratulatory.  The galleries disgorged their burden, and presently the house was silent and deserted.

When Col.  Sellers and Washington stepped out of the building they were surprised to find that the daylight was old and the sun well up.  Said the Colonel: 

“Give me your hand, my boy!  You’re all right at last!  You’re a millionaire!  At least you’re going to be.  The thing is dead sure.  Don’t you bother about the Senate.  Leave me and Dilworthy to take care of that.  Run along home, now, and tell Laura.  Lord, it’s magnificent news ­perfectly magnificent!  Run, now.  I’ll telegraph my wife.  She must come here and help me build a house.  Everything’s all right now!”

Washington was so dazed by his good fortune and so bewildered by the gaudy pageant of dreams that was already trailing its long ranks through his brain, that he wandered he knew not where, and so loitered by the way that when at last he reached home he woke to a sudden annoyance in the fact that his news must be old to Laura, now, for of course Senator Dilworthy must have already been home and told her an hour before.  He knocked at her door, but there was no answer.

“That is like the Duchess,” said he.  “Always cool; a body can’t excite her-can’t keep her excited, anyway.  Now she has gone off to sleep again, as comfortably as if she were used to picking up a million dollars every day or two”

Then he vent to bed.  But he could not sleep; so he got up and wrote a long, rapturous letter to Louise, and another to his mother.  And he closed both to much the same effect: 

“Laura will be queen of America, now, and she will be applauded, and honored and petted by the whole nation.  Her name will be in every one’s mouth more than ever, and how they will court her and quote her bright speeches.  And mine, too, I suppose; though they do that more already, than they really seem to deserve.  Oh, the world is so bright, now, and so cheery; the clouds are all gone, our long struggle is ended, our, troubles are all over.  Nothing can ever make us unhappy any more.  You dear faithful ones will have the reward of your patient waiting now.  How father’s Wisdom is proven at last!  And how I repent me, that there have been times when I lost faith and said, the blessing he stored up for us a tedious generation ago was but a long-drawn curse, a blight upon us all.  But everything is well, now ­we are done with poverty, sad toil, weariness and heart-break; all the world is filled with sunshine.”