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GENERAL INFORMATION.

The Hawaiian Islands are situated in the North Pacific Ocean and lie between longitudes 154 deg. 40’ and 160 deg. 30’ West, and latitudes 22 deg. 16’ and 18 deg. 55’ North. They are thus on the very edge of the tropics, but their position in mid-ocean and the prevalence of the northeast trade wind gives them a climate unequalled by any other portion of the globe a perpetual summer without an enervating heat. In the Hawaiian Islands Americans and Europeans can and do work in the open air, at all seasons of the year, as they cannot in countries lying in the same latitudes elsewhere. To note an instance, Calcutta lies a little to the north of the latitude of Kauai, our most northerly Island, and in Calcutta the American and European can only work with his brain; hard physical labor he cannot do and live. On the Hawaiian Islands he can work and thrive.

RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE.

The rainfall varies, being greater on the windward side of the Islands, and increasing up to a certain elevation. Thus, at Olaa, on the Island of Hawaii, windward side and elevation of about 2,000 feet, the rainfall from July 1st, 1894, to June 30, 1895, was 176.82 inches, while at Kailua, on the leeward side, at a low level, it was only 51.21 inches during the same period.

The temperature also varies according to elevation and position. On the Island of Hawaii you can get any climate from the heat of summer to actual winter at the summits of the two great mountains. A meteorological record, kept carefully for a period of twelve years, gives 89 deg. as the highest and 54 deg. as the lowest temperature recorded, or a mean temperature of 71 deg. 30’ for the year. A case of sunstroke has never been known. People make no special precautions against the sun, wearing straw and soft felt hats similar to those worn in the States during the summer months.

WINDS.

The prevailing winds, as mentioned above, are the northeast trades. These blow for about nine months of the year. The remainder of the period the winds are variable and chiefly from the south. The Islands are outside the cyclone belt, and severe storms accompanied by thunder and lightning are of rare occurrence.

HEALTH.

The Islands possess a healthy climate. There are no virulent fevers such as are encountered on the coast of Africa or in the West India Islands. Epidemics seldom visit the Islands, and when they do they are generally light. A careful system of quarantine guards the Islands now from epidemics from abroad. Such grave diseases as pneumonia and diphtheria are almost unknown. Children thrive wonderfully.

AREA.

For practical purposes and these lines are written for practical men there are eight Islands in the Hawaiian group. The others are mere rocks, of no value to mankind at present. These eight Islands, beginning from the northwest, are named Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui and Hawaii. The areas of these Islands are as follows:

=Square Miles.=

Niihau
Kauai
Oahu
Molokai
Maui
Lanai
Kahoolawe
Hawaii

Total 6740

The Islands that interest an intending immigrant are Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai. It is on these Islands that coffee, fruits, potatoes, corn and vegetables can be raised by the small investor, and where land can be obtained on reasonable terms.

HAWAII.

The Island of Hawaii is the largest in the group, and presents great varieties of soil and climate. The windward side, which includes the districts of North Kohala, Hamakua, Hilo and Puna, is copiously watered by rains and, in the Hilo district, the streams rush impetuously down every gulch or ravine. The leeward side of the Island, including South Kohala, North and South Kona, and Kau, is not exposed to such strong rains, but an ample supply of water falls in the rain belt. The Kona district has given the coffee product a name in the markets of the world.

On this Island are now situated numerous sugar plantations. Coffee employs the industry of several hundred owners, ranging from the man with 200,000 trees to him who has only an acre or so. There are thousands upon thousands of acres at present uncultivated and only awaiting the sturdy arms and enterprising brains of the men of the temperate zone to develop them.

MAUI.

Maui is also a very fine Island. Besides its sugar plantations, it has numerous coffee lands, especially in the eastern part, which are just now being opened up. The western slopes of Haleakala, the main mountain of Maui, are covered with small farms where are raised potatoes, corn, beans and pigs. Again, here, thousands of acres are lying fallow.

HONOLULU.

On Oahu is the capital, Honolulu. It is a city numbering thirty thousand inhabitants and is pleasantly situated on the south side of the Island. The city extends a considerable distance up Nuuanu Valley and has wings extending northwest and southeast. It is a city of foliage. Except in the business blocks, every house stands in its own garden, and some of the houses are wonderfully beautiful.

The city is lighted with electric light; there is a very complete telephone system, and tram cars run at short intervals along the principal streets and continue out to a sea-bathing resort and public park, four miles from the city. There are numerous stores where all kinds of goods can be obtained. In this particular Honolulu occupies a position ahead of any city of similar size. The public buildings are handsome and commodious. There are numerous churches, schools, a public library of over 10,000 volumes, Y. M. C. A. Hall, Masonic Temple, Odd Fellows’ Hall and Theater. There is frequent steam communication with San Francisco, once a month with Victoria (British Columbia), and twice a month with New Zealand and the Australian Colonies. Steamers also connect Honolulu with China and Japan. There are three evening daily papers published in English, one daily morning paper, and two weeklies. Besides these there are papers published in the Hawaiian, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese languages, and also monthly magazines in various tongues.

OAHU’S OPPORTUNITIES.

The Island of Oahu presents excellent opportunities for the investor. Acres upon acres of land remain undeveloped among its teeming valleys, the energies and wealth of the population having been devoted to the development of the sugar lands on the larger Islands.

A line of railroad has been constructed which at present runs along the coast to a distance of thirty miles from the city. It is proposed to continue this line completely around the Island. This railroad opens up rich coffee and farming lands and affords ready means of transport for the produce, and an expeditious method for obtaining the necessary supplies, etc., from the capital. The management of the railroad offers special inducements for would-be investors to see the country, and special rates should they conclude to settle.

KAUAI.

Kauai is called the “Garden Island,” it is so well watered and so luxuriant in vegetation. The Island is at present largely devoted to the cultivation of sugar. Rice also cuts a considerable figure in the agricultural production of Kauai. That it can produce coffee is undoubted, but there is a timidity about embarking in the industry, because some forty years ago the experiment of a coffee plantation was tried, and owing to misjudgment of location and soil, failed. Since then the cultivation of coffee has come to be more thoroughly understood, and there is no doubt that quantities of land suitable for such cultivation are now lying, like the sleeping beauty, waiting for the kiss of enterprise to make them awake into usefulness and profit for mankind.

There is room on the Hawaiian Islands for at least ten times the present population. The climate, soil and social conditions all tend to make them a desirable home for those who are willing to work, and have a moderate capital to begin with.

GOVERNMENT.

The Government of the Hawaiian Islands is a Republic. Up to the year 1893 it had been a limited monarchy, but at that date it was felt, by the progressive party in the state, that monarchy had had its day, and that the friends of such a form of government should give way to more liberal institutions, assimilating to the institutions of the United States, and to become a part of which Great Republic is the earnest desire of all those who have the interests of the Islands at heart. The monarchy, in a bloodless revolution, disappeared and the Republic took its place.

The Republic is a republic of progress, and under the Government thus established every facility has been given for developing and improving the country. The President is elected for six years. The Legislature consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, all members being elected by popular vote. The Senators are elected for a term of six years, and voters for Senators must have real property worth $1,500, or personal property worth $3,000, or an income of not less than $600 per annum. The vote for Representatives is based on manhood suffrage.

TAXATION.

All males between the ages of 20 and 60 pay a personal tax of $5, viz: Poll tax, $1; road tax, $2; school tax, $2. Land pays a tax of one per cent. on the cash value, and personal property a similar rate. Carts pay $2, brakes $3, carriages $5, dogs $1, female dogs $3. From the above it will be seen that the taxes are not heavy as compared with other countries; moreover, there are no local taxes of any kind.

METHOD OF ACQUIRING LAND.

Land can be obtained from the Government by two methods, viz.; The cash freehold system, and the right of purchase leases. Under the first system the land is sold at auction. The purchaser pays one-quarter in cash and the rest in equal installments of one, two and three years, interest being charged at the rate of six per cent. upon the unpaid balance. Under this system the purchaser is bound to maintain a home on the land from the commencement of the second year to the end of the third. The right of purchase leases are drawn for twenty-one years at a rental of eight per cent. on the appraised value of the land. The lessee has the privilege of purchasing the land, after the third year, at the original appraised value, provided 25 per cent. of the land is reduced to cultivation, and other conditions of the lease filled. In this case a home must be maintained from the end of the first year to the end of the fifth year. The limit of first-class agricultural land obtainable is 100 acres. This amount is increased on lands of inferior quality. Under the above conditions the applicant must be 18 years of age and obtain special letters of denization. Land can also be obtained from the various land and investment companies, and from private parties. The full land law will be treated of in Chapter VI. of this pamphlet.

JUDICIARY, POLICE, ETC.

There is a thoroughly efficient judiciary consisting of a Supreme Court, five Circuit Courts in which trials by jury are conducted, and District Courts in every district. The higher courts are presided over by well trained, educated men. There is an efficient police force in every part of the group. The inhabitants are law-abiding and crimes of violence are very rare. There is very little petty theft, and even in Honolulu, the greatest center of population and a seaport town, many of the houses are left with doors unlocked at night.

SCHOOLS.

There is an excellent system of free public schools taught in the English language, the teachers in many cases being imported from the United States. The main plan of the system is modelled upon the public school system of the United States, modified to meet the wants of a heterogeneous population. The children are instructed in writing, reading, composition, arithmetic, geography, both local and general. The books are uniform and obtainable at the same price as in the United States. The schools are strictly non-sectarian. There is no district, however remote, in which there is no school. The only people who cannot read and write are those who come from abroad. Those born in the Islands are compelled by law to take advantage of the education offered. Besides the common school education, opportunities are given at various centers for a higher education equivalent to the grammar grade of the United States, and in Honolulu a high school and collegiate course can be obtained at a small cost.

CHURCHES.

The various Christian denominations are represented and all forms are tolerated. The country churches of the Protestant denominations are chiefly conducted by Hawaiian pastors, the Roman Catholic by French and German priests, who are mostly good linguists and speak Hawaiian, English and Portuguese, besides their mother tongue. Wherever there is a large collection of English speaking people a Protestant church is usually supported by them. In Honolulu there is a large number of churches, Congregational, Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Methodist and Mormon. There is a Sunday law, and all work which is not absolutely necessary is prohibited on that day. Rational outdoor amusement is not prohibited, such as riding, boating, shooting, etc., and the Government Band plays at the public park at Waikiki every Sunday afternoon.

PHYSICIANS.

In every district of the Islands the Government supports a doctor, who gives his services to indigent Hawaiians free of charge others have to pay. In many places there are physicians settled who carry on a private practice.

TELEPHONES.

The Islands of Oahu, Kauai and Hawaii have telephones to every accessible point. The rent of the instrument is moderate, and a small charge is made for those who do not care or cannot afford to possess an instrument of their own. On Maui the telephone is at present established only in part.

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE ISLANDS.

Communication between the Islands is by steamer; of these some seventeen are constantly plying from port to port, affording weekly communication with the capital. The regular passenger steamers are well fitted with cabins, have electric bells and electric lights and all modern accommodations.

POSTAL MATTERS.

There is a regular postal system, and on the arrival of a steamer at any main point, mail carriers at once start out to distribute the mail through the district. The Hawaiian Islands belong to the Postal Union, and money orders can be obtained to the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Portugal, Hong Kong and Colony of Victoria, as well as local orders between the Islands.