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While the coffee trees are growing and during the time that will elapse before the planter receives returns from his investment, it would be a wise thing for him to plant such things, as will not only provide the greater part of the food for himself and family, but may also yield a moderate return in money. The soil and climate of the Hawaiian Islands will grow almost anything that grows in any other country. All Northern fruits can be grown if one will only go high enough on the mountain slopes of Maui and Hawaii. But the coffee planter must confine himself to such things as will thrive in the vicinity in which his coffee trees are planted, and it is for the information of intending planters that this chapter is written.

In the first place, almost all kinds of vegetables will grow in such profusion as will astonish those who have lived only in Northern climes. Green and sweet corn, potatoes, Irish and sweet, cabbages, tomatoes, beans, lettuce, radishes and many other kinds of vegetables, all of the finest quality and in the greatest profusion, can be had every day in the year. Strawberries and raspberries can also be had all the year round. In addition to oranges and limes, which grow to perfection in this country, many fruits peculiar to tropical and semi-tropical climates grow well and flourish in these Islands. Among the more important is the Avocado Pear (Persea Gratissima), commonly called the Alligator Pear. This tree grows well and bears fruit, of splendid quality, in from 3 to 5 years from seed. The fruit is much esteemed by all classes. A small quantity of the fruit is shipped to California; what reaches there in good condition is quickly bought at high prices. It can only be carried safely in cold storage, and this is very expensive freight. A native peach does well, and will bear fruit in two years from seed. The fruit is much smaller than the American peach, which by the way does not do well on elevations below 4000 feet, but very sweet and juicy and makes excellent preserves and pies. Without doubt this peach could in a few years be improved so as to rival peaches of any other country. The Mango (Mangifera Indica) is a tropical fruit tree that grows in the greatest profusion and bears enormous crops of delicious fruit. It comes into bearing in 5 or 6 years from seed and does well from sea level to an elevation of 2000 feet. The fruit is much liked by every one; the green fruit is made into a sauce resembling, but much superior to, apple butter.

The Guava (Psidium Guayava) grows wild in all parts of the Islands below 3000 feet. The fruit, of which there is a great abundance, is made into jam and the very finest jelly in the world. In the fruiting season large quantities of the jelly can be made, and without doubt, exported at a profit.

The Poha (Physalis edulis) is a quick growing shrub bearing a berry that makes excellent jelly and jam. The shrub grows wild on elevations between 1000 and 4000 feet. A patch of pohas planted in a corner of a garden, will grow and yield a bountiful supply of fruit almost without cultivation.

Pineapples are at home on these Islands; a small plot planted with the best varieties of this king of fruits will keep the table supplied the year round.

Another valuable fruit indigenous to this country is the Papaia (Carica papaya). This fine fruit can be raised in enormous quantities and is a most fattening food for pigs and chickens. The tree fruits in eight or nine months from the seed, and thence forward for years it yields ripe fruit every month in the year. The fruit is of the size of a small melon and is very rich in sugar. The unripe fruit contains a milky juice that, even when diluted with water, renders any tough meat, that is washed in it, quite tender. A small piece of the unripe fruit placed in the water in which meat or tough chicken is boiled makes it tender and easily digestible.

A very valuable food plant, indigenous to these Islands, is the taro (Colocasia esculenta). The variety known as dry land taro will grow on land that is moist enough for the coffee trees. The taro is a grand food plant, the tubers containing more nutriment for a given weight than any other vegetable food. The young tops when cooked are hard to distinguish from spinach. The tubers must be cooked before they can be used for food, in order to dissipate a very acrid principle that exists in both leaves and root.

Another important food plant that has been introduced and yields abundantly is the Cassava (Manihot utilissima). This plant furnishes the staple food for the population of Brazil. It is easily propagated by the planting pieces of the woody portions of the stems and branches. The tubers are available in nine or ten months after planting. There are two kinds, the sweet and the bitter; the latter being the more prolific. The sweet kind can be fed to pigs without cooking. The bitter kind contains a poisonous substance which is entirely destroyed by cooking. There is no danger of animals eating the bitter kind in a raw state, for no stock will touch it, while the sweet kind is eagerly eaten in the raw state by pigs, horses, cows, etc. The tubers are prepared for human food by grating them. The juice is then expelled by pressure, and the residue pounded into a coarse meal, which is made into thin cakes. It is an excellent food, and said to be much more digestible than bread and other foods made from wheat. Pigs can be very cheaply raised on the sweet variety of this plant. A field of the plant being ready to gather, a portion is fenced off, and the pigs turned into it. They will continue to feed until every vestige of the tubers is eaten, leaving the ground in a fine condition for replanting. The tubers never spoil in the ground, in fact the soil is the very best storehouse for them. However if left for two or three years the tubers grow very large and tough.

Bananas, in great variety, are grown in all parts of the Islands where there is sufficient moisture. Any land that will grow coffee will grow bananas. The yield of fruit from this remarkable plant is something astonishing. It commences to bear fruit in a little over one year from the time of planting. The stem decays after the formation of a bunch of fruit; this will weigh from 50 to 100 pounds and upwards. Numerous suckers spring up from around the decaying stem and bear fruit in their turn. One-half an acre planted with bananas would not only furnish a large family with an abundance of delicious and nutritious fruit, but would also yield a large supply of feed for pigs, chickens and other stock.

The tea plant (Camellia Thea) grows well in this country and yields a tea of good quality. It is hardly likely that it will become an article of export from this country, as we cannot compete with the very low prices paid for labor in the great tea countries, India, Ceylon, and China. But it can be grown for home consumption, and there is no reason why every coffee planter should not have a patch of tea growing on his land. An eighth of an acre, planted out in tea plants, would yield more tea than could be consumed by a large family; the work of cultivation and preparation is light and easy and could be done by women and children.

The coffee lands are situated in forested tracts in which there is little or no pasturage for animals. Every coffee planter should keep one or more cows to obtain the milk and butter which will furnish a large addition to the food supply for himself and family. In order to do this, it will be necessary to plant such things as will furnish food for the animals. We have several fodder plants that will yield a large quantity of feed and which will only grow in tropical and semi-tropical countries.

First among these is the Teosinte Reana (Euchlacna luxurians). This plant is a native of Guatamala, and grows splendidly in this country; each plant requires sixteen feet of ground for its full development. It is an annual if allowed to run to seed; but its growth can be continued by cutting when four or five feet high, and green feed obtained all the year round.

Guinea grass (Panicum Maximum), one of the grandest of fodder plants, has been introduced and finds a congenial home in this country. It is purely a tropical grass, it grows to a height of eight feet forming large bunches which, when cut young, furnish an abundance of sweet and tender feed. In districts when there is sufficient moisture, it can be cut every two months. Caffir corn, Egyptian millet and Sorghum grow well, and should be planted in order to have a change of feed.

Pumpkins and squash grow to an enormous size and yield an immense quantity of feed, much relished by cows and pigs.

A dry land rice is being tried in the coffee districts of Olaa and Kona, on the Island of Hawaii, and there is every reason to believe that it will be successful. Nearly all the laborers on the coffee plantations use rice as their staple food and it has to be brought from the Island of Oahu to the Islands of Hawaii and Maui. There is no doubt but that the rice used by the labor on the coffee plantations, can be raised on the spot, reducing the cost of living to the laborers, and making them more contented.

It will be seen from the foregoing that many things can be grown that will enable the coffee planter to not only reduce the outlay for living expenses for himself and family but will also allow them to enjoy many of the comforts and luxuries of life.

While our main industries, sugar, coffee and rice, are being vigorously carried on, new products are not lost sight of. Experiments are in progress that promise to greatly diversify our industries and increase the number of our exports.

Several fiber plants are receiving attention, particularly the Sisal Hemp (Agave Sisalana) and Sansevieria or bow string Hemp. The Sisal plant will grow and flourish on lands that are too dry for any other cultivation. Many thousands of the plants have been introduced and at least one plantation is being set out.

The bow string Hemp requires a wet, rich land in order to do well. It probably yields the best fiber of all the leaf fiber plants.

Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) grows splendidly in this country and after being well established will yield 4 to 6 crops per annum. Whenever a machine is invented that will economically decorticate the Ramie fiber, its cultivation will become an important industry in this country. Ramie will grow and do well wherever the coffee tree will grow, and whenever the machine is available, the coffee planter will have a profitable industry, to go hand in hand with coffee and employ the slack time between the coffee picking seasons.

Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) is the tree that produces the fruit from which chocolate is made. It grows and bears well in moist humid districts, and many of the coffee planters are setting out numbers of the trees.

There are many other economic plants that are well suited for culture in this country. The country is entering on a new era, and as the lands become settled and population increases, many small cultures will become possible, which will afford many persons the opportunity of making an easy living in a land of eternal summer.