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Left home quarter past 10 accompanied by my three friends, Mr. Baker, Mr. John Dean, and Cousin Peter Heywood. Took a walk to the Prince’s Dock; found my berth situated near the foot of the staircase. Thence we proceeded to Mr. Thornley’s office and met with the kindest attention. Received several letters of introduction and valuable information; recommended me to take dollars; sent a clerk with me to the money exchangers and also lent me L150. Just then I saw James Turner pass by; he got me the money in five minutes. After dinner we drove down with 784 dollars in a bag sealed up, which I deposited in my portmanteau. Embarked at 4 o’clock, got into the river and 1/4 before 6 were towed out by a steamer going to Dundalk. The steamer left us at half-past nine P.M. near the floating lights. Charged L18. 18. 0.; went to tea 1/4 past 8, found nine passengers. Had a good deal of conversation with one of them, an American, who seemed to be acquainted with all the packets. Said he supposed the Britannia cost 40,000 dollars. Called a vessel old after ten years. Another passenger had been in Egypt and seemed familiar with most parts of America; thought I should have ample time in two months to see the most interesting parts of America, including Canada. Recommended a covering during the night to guard against the mosquitoes. Went to bed about eleven. Slept in drawers and stockings with a night-shirt in addition, there being rather scanty narrow bed clothes. The sea placid so as to allow getting comfortably to bed.


Had a good night, wakened by the crowing of cocks, etc. Our live stock very considerable, consisting of a cow for milk, sheep, turkeys, geese, ducks, hens, etc. Got up at 6-1/2, a fine morning. Breakfast at 8, of fish, beef, mutton, omelettes, tea and coffee. A file of New York papers had been left in the night by an American packet. Found the steerage passengers had a place like the Black Hole of Calcutta, the foolish people not consenting to have their trunks, etc., removed below.

Began reading “A Tour through Canada.” Found one of the passengers going out to assist at a Methodistic Conference in Canada. This forenoon the Captain told the helmsman to go north about. The wind became favourable. We left the Welsh coast and came along side of the Isle of Man or rather the Calf. Did not attend lunch and had not much relish for dinner. Munched one of mother’s cakes and took tea which I liked very much. Had a pleasant chat in the evening; was informed about the watches which are reckoned from twelve at noon ringing every half hour till four, making what is called eight bells; then begins again. Retired to rest about half past ten. Soon after being in my berth found considerable heaves 6 or 8 times, then still whilst I counted 20 or 25, then again heaving as before. This is occasioned by what are called the Swells.


Had another good night; rose soon after seven, found ourselves within 3 miles of the coast of Ireland with Cantyre on our right. Heard the Captain speak to a vessel going to Liverpool telling them to report us all well. Breakfasted very well but soon returned upon deck as we expected soon to lose sight of land. A pretty stiff gale about ten which threw the vessel a good deal on one side. Continued in sight of Ireland till past five when the land and we parted for some weeks. About this time I became qualmish and went to the stern to see if I could hasten the catastrophe by putting down my fingers; this did not avail, therefore I descended to open my store of camomile and black currants; no sooner was this accomplished than I became sick three or four times. I then undressed and rolled into my berth and slept 3 or 4 hours. The ship rolled very much and the water I heard splashing by; it seemed sometimes as if actually going over. Two interesting circumstances occurred last night. I dreamed that my father was actually alive and in his better way. A poor redbreast made his appearance on the vessel how he had come there we did not know. What must be the situation of the poor steerage passengers, about 100 adults and a numerous set of children? A very happy circumstance for us rather than the proprietors is that we have only nine passengers, so each can have a double berth to himself, a very great comfort indeed, especially when it becomes warm weather.


Passed a tolerable night; attempted to get up to breakfast, but found myself obliged to hurry back to my berth and did not attempt to rise till twelve, and then unable to shave. Sat sometimes in the sunshine and sometimes in the small house, unable to walk and fearful of descending. Took only a little bread and a sip of brandy and water. Descended about 7 to tea, but obliged to hurry into my berth when I vomited, then drank a cup of tea. Last night I dreamed that I actually saw my dear father alive and cheerful. Several birds resembling sparrows flew about the ship and seemed as if they had made an error in their reckoning as they must be nearly four hundred miles from land. I cannot but deeply sympathise with the steerage passengers so crowded, whilst with every attention I cannot but think my own situation miserable.


A pretty good night, but did not rise till ten as I felt sickly. Managed to shave without a glass. Sickly all day and unable to take exercise. Sat in the upper house with a quantity of flannel around my feet; urged by the Captain to take a little chicken broth, did so and to my great surprise found some relish. I also partook of a little chicken; sick several times; descended about 7; again sick, got a cup of tea, took two of the pills. Found my feet very cold, rubbed them warm. Sipped of the currant tea and felt very comfortable.

Morning dawn, crowing of cocks, 7-1/2 bell rung round the cabi breakfast; coffee, tea, beefsteak, mutton-chops, et lunch; shins of beef, tongue, et dinner; soup, fish, fowls, beef, mutton, pies, puddings, dessert, oranges, nuts, French plum tea.


Rise soon after seven. Shaved again without glass, walked on deck, got breakfast in the upper house with my two clerical friends. Talked about the miseries of Ireland which they both ascribed to the bad effects of popery, which Mr. Hamilton said continued in a worse state than in any other part of the world; one great proof was that the evils were worse in Munster. When I mentioned France, they said infidelity prevailed there, which I admitted to be the case in the large cities. Dined above with the two ecclesiastics. A good deal of rain with little wind. Then blew fair but very cold. An attempt made to put up a stove but one of the pipes was missing. Found myself able to read a little; commenced with Watson’s “Life,” belonging to Mr. Grindrod. Many gulls flying behind the vessel; a ship in sight northwards. A poor hen escaped from the pen and remained shivering at the stern; on attempting to get her she flew off and fell into the sea and thus escaped having her throat cut by getting drowned; we saw her floating a long way. Hope to have got over my sickness. This evening we all appeared below at tea, being the first time since Saturday morning, the sickness continuing from Saturday evening to Tuesday morning. Watched the Captain and Mr. Seaton play chess. No great skill displayed.


Passed a pretty good night with some curious dreams. Well enough to shave by means of a glass. Made an error in reckoning the watch bells. On deck at half-past six. Found we had not progressed much, the wind unfavourable. No tides here, but assisted by the current make about two knots per hour. About ten an improved N.E. wind which continued most of the day. Cough nearly gone, sickness also, breakfasted pretty well and dined heartily. I and my two clerical friends ordered two bottles of champagne. About two observed a vessel ahead nearing us. Came up soon after five, proved the A from Havannah bound to St. Petersburgh and had been out 42 days; asked us whence we came and whither bound, also the longitude. Then each parted bidding the other a good voyage. The first really happy day I spent at sea. All the crew appeared to be recovered excepting a Welshman and his wife who could not be prevailed on to leave their hammocks; could not speak a word of English. Found the steerage passengers very respectable poor people from Lancashire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Westmoreland and Yorkshire, some with a pretty good property which they found regularly diminishing. A theological debate with Mr. Hamilton. Read part of Lander’s “Travels in Africa.”


Slept well, rose at seven, dressed and shaved without difficulty, but I forgot to rinse out my mouth with water according to my invariable practise. Very cold with stiff breeze, going about 8 knots per hour. At dinner a warm discussion about the state of Ireland. I contended that agitation could only prevail where there was distress. See the state of America; what could D. O’Connell do there? About 5 we had what is called a squall of wind. I went on deck and found the vessel on one side, and scudding steadily through the foaming deep. Gulls still accompanying the ship as if expecting a wreck. So cold, 51 deg., that I remained a good deal below, read nearly 200 pages in Fergusson’s “Tour in Canada.” The Britannia 125 feet long.

Wines, etc., on board furnished by the steward at the following prices:

Madeira wine per bottle                                         $1.
 Sherry                                                                      1.
 Port                                                                          1.
Claret per bottle                                                        1.
Champagne per bottle                                               
Hock or Moselle per bottle                                        1.
Brandy, Gin, Rum, or Whisky } per bottle                 
Punch, Cherry Brandy or Rum Cordial }per bottle     
Porter per bottle                                                       0.37-1/
Cider                                                                        .
Soda Water                                                              .12-1/
Saratoga "                                                                 .25


Did not rise till the tinkling of the bell. Had not rested well the first two or three hours, cold feet, and afterwards a good deal of rolling and pitching of the vessel. The conversation this morning at breakfast chiefly on the expense of dress. Mr. Seaton showed us a stout box coat charged ten guineas which was pronounced very cheap, though I cannot but suppose the same might be had at Bolton for L6. 6. 0. Mr. S. said that 400 dollars was not unusually paid in America. The wind still from the north and therefore favourable, but still very cold. After dinner played three games at chess with Mr. Seaton and lost them all. Learned from one of the seamen that the Britannia is about seven years old, and is expected to continue as a packet about two years longer. Squally again towards night with a good deal of heaving. Tried fishing but not successful. After reading a few pages in Watson’s “Life” I went to rest soon after ten. One of the sails appeared old and to have a small hole, as the wind increased it enlarged and presently went into ribbands.


Had a very restless night. After 1 o’clock the ship rolled tremendously and between one and two I heard a considerable bump, the vessel lurched and we shipped a heavy sea, that is the water flowed over us. I continued in a state of great suspense hearing all sorts of things tumbling about and my looking glass dashed on to me in my berth; put my knees against one side and my back to the other to prevent being tumbled out. For the first time began to regret coming. Often near asleep and then the vessel so much on one side I could not help fearing it going over. Not being able to sleep I got up before seven A.M. Found the sea very greatly agitated and the atmosphere thick as if occasioned by the foam. Looked over the stern and observed two gulls in pursuit of anything we might throw away. The ocean has the appearance of hills and vales and the heaving on one side I found was occasioned by going up the sides of the hills. Felt qualmish but took some breakfast. After reading Watson’s “Life” I turned again into bed till near one P.M. Then went on deck; four disagreeables, cold, no wind and that wrong, rain, and rather sickly. An elderly sailor at the helm said we had a strong gale in the night; but at this time of year it was not much minded and told me it was quite impossible for the ship to go over on one side. Fourteen dismal dirty looking geese turned out to promenade the deck. Saw a ship yesterday. The gale again increased towards evening and I feared a poor night. A very good pancake half way across the Atlantic.


Had a better night, being greatly relieved by the assurance of the impossibility of the ship being blown on one side. Remained awake several hours and afterwards found it assist to lie on one’s back when the ship is rolling. Whilst on deck the sea suddenly broke over the side. I escaped by means of the boat hung over the side. Mr. Jackson got a complete drenching. After breakfast I proposed having a religious service which was assented to, and our clerical friends promised to conduct it. At eleven we had the Church of England Service read by Mr. Hamilton, Mr. Grindrod acting as clerk and also closing the service by an appropriate prayer, alluding to our peculiar situation and praying for a safe voyage; and also those in the other parts of the vessel, also the Captain and family. It was intended to have a sermon preached to the whole crew in the afternoon, but the weather proved too cold. The Captain said we had made three degrees of latitude since noon the day before; would not admit that we had got half way but thought in a day or two we should want the hatch windows opened. No ship or porpoises to be seen of all day.


Passed a good night. About five we seemed quite becalmed, but were glad to find this not the case, the breeze had continued moderately through the night. Sensibly warmer and consequently most of the steerage passengers appeared on deck. Much pleased with a number of porpoises swimming alongside of us for a mile or two. A good deal of talk with Captain Kenney about the English nobility, etc., and also with Captain Sketchley, who said he had been more than 40 years at sea, chiefly between Liverpool and New York. His family resides in Liverpool on account of Mrs. S. who could not bear the extremes of the American climate. Find fresh faces on board, most of them have part of their family already gone to America.


Passed a pretty good night though the ship rolled a good deal at times; and I found the sea a good deal agitated. The wind continued to blow hard all day, the vessel rising and falling 10 or 12 yards. Sometimes one side nearly down at the water’s edge, and rising up out of boiling foam. Early in the evening the dead-lights, those at the stern, were made up lest a sea should rush through; the same with the skylights. The Captain said the gale was very unusual at this season of the year; talked of the vessel being more uneasy than she used to be. Captain Kenney now appeared on deck. During dinner two ducks and sauce were suddenly swept across the table and most of it thrown upon Mr. Cayley. Towards evening the sky became darker and the storm likely to increase during the night; this we found the case and about ten we rolled tremendously; we all seemed depressed; no cards, not much reading; a few conundrums, etc.


Had a restless night not sleeping till four, when more sail was hoisted that steadied the vessel and I rested comfortably till half past seven. Nobody but I and Mr. Grindrod seemed to have been inconvenienced. A delightful change, the wind more favourable and the sea lower, the sun shining. A game called Shuffleboard was introduced with trenchers about 1-1/2 inch thick and 10 in. diameter, counting thus, and the trenchers could be slided within the lines; claret 2 bottles of champagne being the wagers or results of the game. About twelve I went to lie down, having had so little sleep. Whilst down a ship passed to the west of us. Played two games at Chess with the Captain who beat me though I had quite the game and could have taken his Queen. As heretofore, if successful I became careless, and if the contrary too much depressed. Stopt up with the card party till after eleven. No gulls to be seen.


Had a pleasant night, found little wind and that not favourable; in fact they tell me we are not nearing N.Y. Finished Watson’s “Memoirs” 667 octavo pages; a good reply to those who have attempted a defence of slavery from O. and N. Testament. Spent the day very delightfully, being so warm that we preferred the shade. The wind but light and not fair. Tried fishing but not successful.

An old seaman who has been with the Britannia over three years says he never knew a passage from England to America made in less than 30 days.

Played another game at chess with Mr. Seaton, had the worst of it, but called away to dinner. Another play was putting the feet in a swing rope and trying how far they could go, being then chalked on the deck.

After tea went on deck, a beautiful starlight night, a good deal of singing. Jackson had ascended the rigging, was followed by one of the seamen who tied his legs. The usual penalty followed a bottle of rum; he gave them two and the evening passed merrily.


Passed a very good night, the sea placid, but little wind and that adverse. The wind rising but in no better direction. Played another game with Mr. Seaton, he giving me a Knight, still unsuccessful. Had a slight headache, the atmosphere feeling very damp. Saw one of Mother Carey’s chickens or petrel of the ocean; it resembles a swallow and followed us some distance picking up some crumbs of bread thrown to it by the Captain.

The Mate says 28 days the shortest passage he ever made to America. At dinner a warm discussion on the Duke of Newcastle doing “what he liked with his own”; also the advantage of colonies, also the large military and naval expenses. After dinner we fell in with a ship from Vera Cruz to Bordeaux. The wind fair for the first time since we sailed. This evening played another game with the Captain and lost. Went on deck and heard two songs.


Had a good night. Dreamed that I had returned from Liverpool and could not get back in time for sailing; also that I had had three suits of clothes sent in. Was sorry to learn that the wind had died away and that we had only made about 1-1/2 knots per hour. Two vessels seen at a great distance; about two they came within a mile of us; others were also observed. Went down and wrote a few lines; the vessel did not come near enough for us to speak to them. Another ship passed in the afternoon but more distant. At dinner Mr. Seaton said he had known Madeira wine sell for more than eleven dollars a bushel. Very good pancakes indeed. In the evening Mr. Seaton, talking of horses said he himself had two horses which he drove eleven miles an hour for four successive hours; also spoke of the great mercantile house of Parish & Co., Hamburgh and New York. One of the steerage passengers informs me that there are 102 in the fore steerage and 39 in the middle steerage.


Had a pleasant night and rose before seven, and took out my better clothes to remind me more effectually of Sunday. Found the wind had continued moderately favourable. A long discussion at breakfast respecting smoking. Mr. Bassnett said he had smoked thirty cigars for thirty days together, and did not consider it hurtful when taken properly into the lungs. I considered it hurtful, and particularly as generally it was accompanied by drinking. A ship passed us this morning. At half past ten the bell tolled for a religious service and seats were brought on deck. Mr. Hamilton read the Church of England service, and Mr. Grindrod preached a good practical sermon. In the evening the Captain proposed to have an evening service, which was readily acceded to by Mr. Grindrod. Mr. H. read the evening service and Mr. G. preached the sermon. In the morning service the prayer for the royal family had given offence to some of the crew, and therefore on the recommendation of the Captain, the prayer was altered into all chief magistrates and governors.


Dreamed a good deal and particularly about my late dear father, who is now still more in my remembrance, and I have frequently to check the expectation of seeing him on my return. A truly delightful morning with an improved breeze. Passed what is called a black fish. Played a game with Mr. Bassnett and beat him. A most delightful and favourable breeze continued. Immediately after dinner I observed a current of yellow water about the breadth of the ship’s length, and about 1/2 or 3/4 mile on each side, and after passing over it I went to tell the Captain who was just then looking over the side; he made haste to the stern along with others and he expressed very great surprise, almost seemed desirous to turn the vessel about to look more closely. He had never seen the like before, and should have been alarmed had he seen it at the head; could only explain it by supposing that an iceberg with a quantity of mud had melted in that neighbourhood. Had fiddle and dancing particularly well done by the steward, cook, and some of the sailors. Played another game at chess with Mr. B. and beat him. Although we have had a good fair breeze all day we have not seen a single ship.


Had a good wind all night which continued till near ten, when a heavy shower of rain came on and the wind became unfavourable. A ship seen at a distance; passed two others early this morning. The wind continued unfavourable all day, also colder so that we all appeared depressed. Played two games with Mr. Bassnett and lost, then went on deck about ten and found the wind abated, but quite ahead. The Captain said he was quite sick of it. The curious phenomenon yesterday of the coloured water, is explained by some of the seamen supposing it to be the spawn of a whale.

Much breakage of glasses at dinner; my decanter tossed off the table and broken; also a tumbler and champagne glass. One gull seen yesterday and two stormy pétrels follow us a long way. A very dull day with all of us, partly occasioned by the unfavourable wind and coldness. Had some affecting conversation with Mr. G. respecting my late dear father. A fine evening, the wind changed and almost became a calm. The ship gradually turned round to get on another tack.


Rested pretty well, but found we had made little way. A good deal of conversation at breakfast respecting various kinds of fruit. America it seems is well supplied with tropical fruit. Finished Lander’s “Travels in Africa”; also read before Fergusson’s “Canadian Tour.” The breeze refreshing though not altogether favourable, much better than a calm. Mr. Bassnett proposed as a wager, that he would throw doublets ones to sixes in succession in ten minutes, which he accomplished in seven; he also surprised us by taking up the dice by means only of the boxes. The wind continued favourable all day. Played another game with Mr. B. and lost it. Did not see a ship or fish throughout the day. Have great difficulty in preventing myself from thinking of meeting my late dear father on my return.


Did not sleep so well though tolerably comfortable. Found the wind slight but for the first time quite fair in a due east, all the sails squared and also the stunsail out. Saw a fish. The wind about one, changed more south. A long sit and chat upon the helm house with Mr. Grindrod. A very good breeze all day. Remarkable that we saw not a vessel all day excepting before breakfast and at a great distance. Frequently do I find some trouble in checking the expectation of meeting again my dear father.


Got up before six having not been able to sleep since 2 o’clock, such noises, pitching and rockings as surely never were heard before. Found the sea greatly agitated and much foam. I asked one of the seamen if he did not call this a stiff gale; he said it was a fresh breeze. The Captain admitted that it blew hard; he was up all night. Cold all day and the wind quite contrary. Six or seven stormy pétrels seen at once, and now and then a gull. Towards evening we discerned a brig which we found was sailing before us; she had little sail, and appeared to wish to speak to us, but did not come sufficiently near. It has been one of the disagreeable days, very cold with adverse wind and all our spirits depressed; several of our passengers are out of health. Mr. Webster complained of a boil on his ear; also Mr. Jackson of earache; Captain Kenney has a bad cold, and Mr. Bassnett a bad digestion. In the morning the Captain persuaded me to go to rest again and I lay down after dinner.


I passed a much better night and got up at half past six; was gratified to learn from the Mate who is not usually encouraging, that we had been making way in the night; pointed out a vessel passing us on the east. The Captain is making his 132nd passage across the Atlantic, say 62 voyages; been at sea 45 years, 35 in the American trade. A very, very cold, though sunny day. A score of pétrels flying about. A day of business amongst the steerage passengers exchanging provisions. Much warmer on deck after dinner. Had some conversation in French with one of the sailors who is a Frenchman from Bordeaux. Been upon deck and greatly pleased with the numerous pétrels chirping on all sides of the ship. Find the seamen are only engaged at New York to Liverpool and back, their wages paid during that time; this is the same even with the cook. The Captain every Saturday night sends a glass of whiskey to all the cabin passengers.


Passed the night very comfortably till six, when a sudden squall arose that tossed and rolled us about exceedingly. On going upon deck the sea was much agitated, it rained so heavily that I was obliged to descend. These sudden changes are not unusual in what is called the Gulf Stream; but I feel truly thankful that the storm did not come on earlier; it continued to blow hard all day. Seated at the stern watching the pétrels and feeding them with bits of fat mutton. A ship seen this morning and another in the evening. A fine rolling sea and warm enough to sit out and enjoy it. The Church of England Service read in the cabin and a prayer made by Mr. Grindrod.


Passed a comfortable night till five, when the vessel began to roll about. Got up before seven, found a dead calm which was the cause of the motion, which continued all forenoon.

Amused myself with reading Mr. Bassnett’s voyage to Syria; and also at looking at some amusing caricatures of Cruickshank’s. The wind fair but very little of it, yesterday a gale but in a wrong direction; in fact we have only had once a really fair wind and that for a short time. A great many gulls to be seen, most of them with pointed tails, and few pétrels. Had we gone over the banks we might have had some diversion in fishing, but the Captain was afraid of encountering the ice.

In the Gulf there is not only a stream against us but generally very foggy weather and changeable, either calms or storms. This has been a very unpleasant day, a calm with dull hazy weather, no fish or ships, or even Mother Carey’s chickens, but only a few gulls. A good deal of champagne taken to-day by Jackson, very foolish.


Passed a pretty good night though occasionally the ship rolled and pitched more than I expected. When I went upon deck I was agreeably surprised; a very good wind from the north bearing us on very well.

The scene diversified by a grampus 8 to 10 feet long, and a flying fish which is rather larger than a swallow. About ten spoke to a vessel from Jamaica to London. Finished reading Bassnett’s manuscript tour, Syria, Egypt, etc. Much depressed by the recollection of my dear father’s departure; told Mr. Grindrod the cause, which led to some serious and at the same time consolatory remarks. At dinner Mr. Jackson enquired what was the matter, upon which Mr. G. very kindly explained the cause. Commenced reading B. H.’s Notes on Chili, Peru, etc., he is a very pleasing and agreeable writer. The measles broke out about this time.


Passed a quiet night, found it raining which we fear may lead to a change of the wind which still continues rather favourable. Continued heavy rain till nearly eleven then cleared up and the wind increased, but not favourable taking us too much to the south instead of crossing the Gulf Stream. It is usual to go over the banks of Newfoundland but the Captain feared the icebergs. The Captain said if there was anything done by the Almighty which he could wish altered it would be the Gulf Stream; there is not only a current against us, but great uncertainty as to calms and storms. Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy and her sister dined with us to-day. Jackson more than usually foolish. Some of the passengers trying to put their legs over an American flour cask, and so raise themselves over it upon their feet. Went upon deck and was much pleased with the appearance of the sea; the ship was sailing through liquid fire; the sides of the vessel being quite illuminated with the foam, and the ocean was covered apparently by fire occasioned by the breakers. Passed the day without seeing either sail or fish.


Passed another comfortable night, found we had been getting on pretty well; nearly out of the Stream with the intention of shooting across the first fair wind.

The wind continues pretty favourable. A child died aged nine months. A stone with two lumps of iron are tied up to sink the child. At six the bell tolled, the little thing was placed upon a door and when the Minister, Mr. H. came to that part of committing the body to the deep it was slid off into the ocean and immediately disappeared, to be eaten by fish instead of worms. The mother did not come upon deck, her name Johnson, has 7 or 8 other children with her; the husband I believe in America.

Jackson told the Captain last night that he lost his father last 29th May, surely this circumstance will help him to a little more steadiness but this was hardly the case, excepting as occasioned by yesterday’s debauch. Mr. Seaton says bastardy is not so common in America but always charged to the father. Mr. Cayley takes no exercise, says he never walks on ship, eats a good deal of animal food; a very bad system, either exercise or abstinence is essentially necessary.


Passed another good night though dreaming more of home and the warehouse; was delighted to find a fair wind and that it had been the same during the night; continued so all day but the rolling of the ship on going to breakfast made me rather sickly most of the forenoon; in fact we pitched and tossed more than ever with heavy rain a good part of the day, so that but for the wind being favourable we should consider it the most unpleasant day we have had; no ships, no fish or anything to divert the tedium.

This morning two of the sails were torn to ribbands. Frequent jelly-like substances floating on the ocean of various colours formed like a cockscomb commonly called Portuguese men-of-war.


Another good night, found the wind favourable but not much of this most of the night. A warm political discussion; I stated that America and not Dan O’Connell was the great political agitator. Speaking of the immense salaries paid in England I said the Government was more in fault in granting them, it being only human nature to receive. Captain Kenney said he should like to subscribe to send the radicals out of the country. I thought it would be better to employ the subscriptions in getting all the democrats away. A dense mist continued on the surface of the ocean till eleven, when it suddenly disappeared. A ship discovered by Mr. Grindrod.

I cannot forget that this is the anniversary of the interment of my dear father. Finished the second volume of Hall’s “Journal of a Voyage to Chili, etc.” Learned from Captain Kenney that the journey from London to Moscow by Hamburgh, Luebeck, St. Petersburgh may be done in a week for about L34; that there is no difficulty with regard to passports, but that you must advertise every district visited in the “St. Petersburgh Gazette,” and that you are leaving there in three weeks; you can then stop that time but no longer in one place. At dinner we had some interesting discussion on phrenology, and also respecting future punishment and the different degrees; the latter I was glad to find was the creed of Mr. G. between whom and Mr. B. the conversation was carried on. On going on deck I was surprised to find that the Captain did not approve of such discussions.


Passed a very comfortable night; found we had at length crossed the Gulf Stream; sensibly colder. The wind had not been favourable since last night. A very considerable mist occasioned by the warm water in the Stream coming in contact with the cold atmosphere very cold.

The morning service according to the Church of England read by Mr. H. but not so many present on account of the cold again in the evening with a sermon from Mr. G. from John, 14th chap., 15th verse, “If ye love me keep my commandments.” Captain K. said he did not consider himself a gambler though he had lost 1, 2, 3 or L400 a night; once at Paris he lost a good deal. Since then he had made it a rule not to give checks, but merely stake what he had with him; when he lost the large sums they were out of his winnings. Talked of some wines that would not do for sea, port for instance; had several bottles changed because not so clear. This has been a disagreeable day, cold and a contrary wind; all the crew seemed to be getting out of spirits. Mr. Jackson said he cost his father L3000 for the 2-3/4 years he was learning the spinning business; he admitted he had been very gay.


A very good night, dreamed of home and my intention of going again to America. Delighted to find the weather milder and the wind favourable; it continued thus all day; rain came on about three; after dinner there was thick mist which continued all afternoon. Spent several hours with the helmsman and others.

Mr. Jackson does business with Gore, Honiball and Harrison. Mentioned Coates with whom they did as much as 10,000 pieces annually. Commenced reading “The Refugee in America,” a work by Mrs. Trollope.


Did not sleep, as in the early part of the evening feared we might run foul of some vessel, and after four we had a good deal of rolling. On getting up I was greatly disappointed to find the wind had been west all night, and also very cold indeed. Passed two fishing boats, also saw the spouting of a whale every now and then like foam from a breaker. Several other fishing boats seen on each side of us, engaged in cod fishing off the banks of Nova Scotia, so that we are now within soundings.

Mr. Bassnett mounted the rigging and saw land. The wind continued hard and cold; by “hard” is meant that no change can be expected till it dies naturally away. Another child is dead of the measles. Mr. Grindrod and I engaged in reading together “The Refugee.” No fish to be seen. The day has been very cold and comfortless, very unfavourable for the poor children afflicted with measles.


Had a pleasant night, but found we had made little progress, the wind still unfavourable. Another child dead of the measles. To reconcile the mother to interment in the deep, a coffin was ordered. About one both children were placed upon a sort of door, where a part of the bulwark had been taken away. Mr. G. officiated in consequence of Mr. H.’s indisposition, and on committing them to the deep the coffin did not sink. A great many passengers ran immediately to the stern whence it was observed for more than ten minutes, one passenger protesting that he still saw it, after others had declared that it had sunk; so that what was intended as a kindness proved otherwise, as the other body had sunk instantly.

Almost a dead calm all day till half past six, but being so much warmer we were all in better spirits. A most glorious sunset this evening. The cook considered to be very quarrelsome; quarrelled this evening with some of the sailors and got a bloody face. Jackson took more to drink than usual. They continued playing at whist till after eleven.


Got up at half past six, was delighted to find the wind had continued favourable all night.

After breakfast assisted the Captain in assorting 2430 letters, many of them double, treble, etc., besides some hundreds of parcels, with a great many newspapers most of them Willmer & Co. Immediately, i.e. half past eleven, a sudden squall came on, a great part of the sail was immediately taken in rain and much colder, also much rocking of the ship; we have to be thankful that it has happened now, rather than in the night and especially when nearer land. Immediately after dinner one of the most terrible rolls we have ever had, I suppose more glasses were broken this day than on any former one. About two we had quite a thunder storm with very heavy rain. After dinner we went to the stern and had the most terrible heave, and such a sea as we had never beheld before and all this at the end of the fifth week. Sounded and found 40 fathoms, tried to fish for cod or hollypot (halibut) but not successful. Yesterday a calm, to-day almost a hurricane. The wind went down about four but the sea continued rolling; in fact it must have blown harder from some other part to have raised the sea so much.


Did not sleep much till after four in consequence of the ship rolling so much. Most truly delighted to find that we had had favourable wind since eleven, and now with this wind from N.E. which is likely to be more permanent we may fully expect to get in to-morrow. About ten there came on a heavy squall which settled into a stiff breeze, so that it became necessary to take in a good deal of sail; a larger sea broke over than any I had yet seen. About two it lessened and the sail was again increased. After dinner, about five, the delightful word “Land” was announced which made us all truly delighted. Immediately I went on deck and was just able to discern the shore of Long Island. What a most agreeable contrast; only this morning a greater sea broke over the ship than I had seen before, and now at six we are sailing in smooth water.

After the first transports of joy on seeing land, my feelings became saddened by the recollection of never again beholding my dear father, and these no doubt will be my sensations when I get back to my native land. Another most glorious sunset, a cloud covering the upper part of the low coast of Long Island, the lower part of the sun’s disk made it have the appearance of a bright line for several seconds with beautiful clouds above, equal to any Italian sky I have beheld.


A most delightful morning but hardly a breath of air to help us on. At noon another child died and was interred. Very hot. The Jersey coast seen this morning. Mr. Seaton, a moderate smoker, said he had used 56/- worth this voyage. Paid 4 dollars and 2/6 to steward also wine bill 10 dollars and 60 cents. Mr. Jackson’s bill 77 dollars besides 16 lost at cards. Many ships in sight and a good deal of the coast. Long Island a very low sandy shore. Unfavourable breeze till after dinner when all at once it changed. A beautiful sight, 15 or 16 vessels on each side, and one from Ireland filled with emigrants. An officer rowed by five men from a revenue cutter boarded us a little before eight; took an account of the cases of merchandise and passengers; he appeared a pleasant sharp-looking young man, Mr. Seaton said a lieutenant. One of the seamen sounded ringing the number of fathoms. A little before ten a pilot came on board, said they could not get down sooner for want of wind, had been towed out some part by a steamer. Several pilots came in one boat, and brought two newspapers. Let go the anchor soon after ten to stem the tide. The cow seemed to recognize the land, poking out her head and snuffing the land breeze.


A delightful morning; found the anchor had been let down about half past six. A fine view of Staten Island. The pilot says we are about 14 miles off the quarantine got Mr. Grindrod to inform my friends per the Royal William, Londonderry, bound to Liverpool, that I had arrived safe.

Many porpoises seen inside the Hook. So calm that we have to anchor to stem the tide. Mr. Bassnett very ill; about two, became delirious. Saw a steam boat I proposed joining at the expense, but Mr. Seaton seemed to think it could not be done without offending the Captain. I ventured to mention it to him, mentioning Mr. B.’s illness. He said he could have no objection and would join us. The flag was hoisted, but either he was previously engaged or refused to assist us. Got into the boat hanging on the side of our ship and observed upwards of 40 sail on each side of us. As we come close to the shore the cow lows. Many porpoises. Got on shore at Staten Island at seven o’clock; stept across the Hercules, an immense steamer; the land quite strange to my feet, the air quite fragrant and the grass delightfully green; a large vine with much bloom. Took tea with fifteen others, very good bread and butter, also turnips, radishes, and strawberry preserves. Walked out and saw many fire-flies and heard all sorts of noises from grasshoppers, frogs, etc. Went to the hospital for a doctor to attend Mr. B.


Passed a pleasant night, rose soon after six, a most brilliant morning. Called upon poor Bassnett, found him very ill, had slept only two hours, but thought this caused by a powerful medicine. On walking or still more on standing still, I feel as it were the motion of the ship.

Plenty of wood for fires, also many of the houses built with shingles.

Took a boat to fetch our foul linen to be washed at the hospital washhouse. Only four-wheel carriages. Large dragon-flie degrees in the shade. A couple of oxen drawing a cart. Paid 12-1/2 cents for washing the clothes, 17 articles. For one day’s entertainment at the Nautilus Hotel, 1 doc. Took part of a most delicious cyder, also a plate of strawberries. Found the helm of the steamboat worked ahead, instead of at the stern. A fine pineapple 37 cents. Hair cut 25 cents. Called upon Francis Hall on account of Mr. Grindrod.

At Bunker’s Hotel all black waiters, the charges the same, whether one attends the meals or not. Set off to call upon Thomas Dean; found him ill of the erysipelas and Mrs. D. just going into the straw. Complained of business being very bad and likely to be so for the next two months. Rent of the house 500 dollars. Missed my way on my return by taking the wrong turn in Broadway, so that on enquiring I was 2-1/2 miles from the Hotel. On getting in, found the table set out, partook of a little ham, and went to bed, pretty well tired. T. D. cautioned me against over exertion.


Rested very well though I had some fear at the beginning of the night. I also awoke, found myself very warm and feared I had done too much. However soon fell asleep. Rose soon after six another brilliant morning.

Orders are communicated to the servants by signal bells. At half past seven a gong sounded, the same repeated at eight, the latter being the signal for breakfast. A long table with bread, all sorts of fish, meat, cakes, strawberries, attended by eight black waiters. Called upon T. Dean and he very kindly assisted in getting my portmanteau, and also in exchanging my dollars which are at par or 4_s._ 6_d._ making 2-3/4 in my favour. Went to the auction and am told that the greatest part of British goods are disposed of in this way; when once advertised they must be sold as people will not lose their time in inspection; all depends on the scarcity with regard to pieces, therefore requires great care in watching the turns of the market. Took a glass of soda-water made palatable with sweet lemon juice. Arranged matters in my portmanteau. Dined with upwards of 70 persons of both sexes. All sorts of meat cooked in all ways; the peas sweetened as in Italy. Dessert chiefly oranges and strawberries.

Strolled by Broadway, examined the two churches, also the City Hall. Attended one of the courts trying a ship insurance case; conducted like those in England excepting that there are no gowns or wigs. The Judge also in plain clothes but addressed as His Honour; the witnesses are sworn as with us, standing near the Judge and the Jury 13. Coming out of the Court it began to rain a little, afterwards a good deal of lightning with some thunder.


Rose at six; found the air cooler and very refreshing. Walked down to the shore, saw the Philadelphia packet off. Immense quantity of wood put under the boiler. Bathed in the floating bath, not very tidy. Just in time for a most sumptuous breakfast. Sailed to Staten Island; had a most delightful walk to Factoryville; a pleasant breeze. Very large cherry trees. Found Ward in humble circumstances, a shoemaker; built a house costing 650 dollars, let the upper part for 100 dollars and occupied the base himself with a second wife, his former wife and child being dead.

Found Mr. Bassnett improving. Expect to see him again in Buffalo. Called upon T. D. and found 400 dollars in 5’s, 10’s with particulars as to their legal tender, etc., by Mr. Bliss. Then dined and afterwards called upon Robert Wood at Franklin Square; promised to see him on my return. Then proceeded to Dr. Griscome, 110 Henry St. but did not find him; mentioned that I purposed calling upon my return. Bought beautiful oranges at 1/2_d._, also a pine for 10_d._ Then called at the American Hotel, found Jackson who insisted on my taking a glass of wine with him. Mr. Webster and Captain Kenney both very civil. After tea, walked up and down Broadway; into two booksellers’ shops where some books were sold very low. Paid my bill and got everything nicely packed up, managed to put all into my portmanteau excepting two coats which I put into the bag.


Got up a little before six, a fine morning. Left in the People’s line of Packet at seven. Paid for breakfast ticket 50 cents, also to Princeton 150 cents. Most of the houses on Staten Island are built by fishermen who take large quantities of oysters. The grass is cut and placed upon stakes to prevent it being washed or blown away, as it cannot be carted away till frost comes.

Met with a gentleman, Lieutenant Higby, on the steamer returning from Charleston who showed me great attention, also presented me with a stick of orange wood. On leaving the steamer the road was so steep that but for an elderly lady who seemed so composed I should have been frightened. On the road, a field or two was cleared, the rest was forest, till on reaching Princeton the farms appeared larger. Here I engaged a gig for 150 cents. Curious sound occasioned by locusts, 17 years since their last visit. Saw a beautiful white cottage which proved to be the residence of our friend W. B.; found all well. W. was quite astonished to see me and threw his head upon my shoulders. Mrs. B. greatly surprised, also Jonathan whom we found in the fields. On going to the door I saw the driver had tumbled down the bag and portmanteau, and set off without asking for anything for himself or the turnpike gate. Walked about in the garden, then took some coffee and lettuce. Walked round the farm about 150 acres which cost him about 7 guineas an acre. The soil good and well cultivated with rye, oats, maize, and bounded on one side by a good road leading to Trenton, and the remainder by a beautiful stream; also good spring water in most of the fields. The estate is beautifully varied by gentle elevations; never troubled by mosquitoes; most of the snakes have been destroyed. They have five horses, 7 cows, 30 pigs, 100 poultry besides pigeons, etc. Very glad to find the B.’s so comfortably settled and steadily applying themselves to the improvement of the farm; very careful, exceedingly diligent, rising at four and working till eight, doing all the carpenter’s work, butchering, etc. Stopt up till after eleven talking over old matters, etc.


Slept very well till just before six. Found all busy and breakfast set out, ham, eggs and coffee. Could not get away till I promised to visit them again on my return to N.Y. Driven to Trenton. At twelve I took the steamer down the Delaware to Philadelphia. Several floats of timber on the river, 36 yards long, 6 broad and 6 planks deep. A pleasant sail and view of Philadelphia. Paid 25 cents to one of the Rail line porters. Found Head’s Hotel, Mansion House, rather less expensive than Bunker’s. After dinner set off with C. D.’s parcel to Ridings in 13 St. a long way. Rain came on, I borrowed an umbrella from an entire stranger, who waited until my return and then accompanied me to Mr. Hulme’s. Mr. H. not in, and agreed to call at nine to-morrow morning. Very good coffee that refreshed me. Went to the theatre, spacious and handsome, with gilt pillars. Not one in the pit when I entered. The performers tolerable; the pit seats rise very much. Though twelve o’clock I found the table set out at the hotel, got a little ham and went to bed. The streets all in right lines, but many of the houses of irregular height. A great deal of marble used in the cellar steps of inferior houses. At dinner had only some boiled mutton and peas which I found very good, also a little tart and some strawberries. I think of declining to take wine and I am advised to try cyder, but find it not good, physicy. Took coffee instead of tea, and found it excellent. Two blacks employed in driving away the flies that are getting numerous. A mocking bird that sings most of the night.


Rose half past six. A delightful morning after the rain. Had a walk down street before breakfast.

The horses are protected from flies by netting or thongs. Called upon Mr. Hulme and met with a very gracious reception. After showing me through the lower part of the house and the curious filtering machine, also the mode of getting the water cool, he walked with me to the Mint, where I saw the bar of silver gradually lengthened out, then punched and then put into a machine to letter the edge, then placed under the die and then very quickly ejected in a complete coin. Also a curious process of extracting gold from silver; it only appeared like a dirty sort of revolving vessel, much like a milk basin and the man said its value exceeded 6000 dollars. Thence we went to a saw mill, with machines that planed and grooved the boards leaving them quite ready for laying down. Thence to the water works where the river Schuylkill forces up its own water (rather reddish) into three large reservoirs. Then descended, found five large water wheels at work and preparations for two others. We came back in a stage coach and were charged only 25 cents for both. Went to enquire about the Frankford stage which leaves at nine. Went into a large Quakers’ meeting house both Pilling and John Wood in town, but could not manage to meet them. Visited the Exchange, a handsome edifice built of white marble. Another balloon in the sky.

Walked towards the shipping, found much wood used though there is much coal of a kind very black and shining like pitch, and giving out heat without blaze. The evening was truly beautiful, the sky so clear that the stars seemed nearer and the moon as if it imparted heat as well as light.


Got up a little after seven. Breakfast at half past eight; the best bread and butter in the world; good fish and eggs. Two blacks driving away the flies. All rooms gloomy, the verandahs or shutters closed to keep out the heat. Called upon Mr. Hulme and walked with him and two Miss Hulmes. A beautiful chapel of white marble with a fine range of steps and columns, the inside equally neat, the pulpit in a recess, a column on each side and an inscription over “This is life eternal.” Mr. Furness preached an excellent sermon “Examine Thyself.” The singing chiefly by the choir with a good organ. After service walked with Mr. H. to a neat though rather small cemetery. Afterwards called on an interesting old Scotch bachelor who came to dine with us. We spent a pleasant afternoon, went on the railroad to see the inclined plane where an accident had recently happened; walked over a very large wooden bridge covered over and supported upon stone pillars. An interesting discussion respecting Jackson, etc. Took tea and attended the evening service; the text “What is the Almighty that we should serve Him?”


Some rain had fallen in the night that made it very pleasant. Went to see about the Frankford stage, told it would be at half past eight at the Exchange. Looked over some English papers. After waiting some time found the Frankford stage left at 2nd street above High St. Found it did not go till ten. Amused myself at the wharf watching some fishermen, some of them very successful. Coming back I saw turtles some laid on their back to keep them from running away; the snapping turtle very savage, if once it lays hold, nothing but the knife can part it.

Took the stage at ten, arrived (at Frankford) half past eleven. Went to Pilling’s Works but could not find Mr. P. or learn anything about my uncle. Went to other works and set off a mile further to a cotton mill, but could not find it nor enquire of anyone. A great noise from the locusts that are still said to come only once in 17 years. Killed two to present to C. D. and Mr. B.

Returned and enquired at several stores but could hear nothing of him. Then set off to see Mr. P. and on the way found his brother who keeps a store. On asking him he seemed to hesitate and went into the house to make further enquiry. He then told me that his uncle had been working at his brother’s mill at Hulmesburgh; that he died about three weeks ago having scalded his leg, almost insensible towards the last. This Pilling it appears married a daughter of Abraham Walch. I knew him at first sight. They immediately set the table out and urged me to stop a day or two with them. On my declining he put on another coat and accompanied me on the way, when he disclosed to me the melancholy news of his uncle having cut his throat, then denying it and saying somebody else had done it.


Asked for coffee a little earlier, promised in ten minutes; in less than five, fish (bass) and eggs, etc., ready. Walked up to the stage office and set off at eight; found it carrying the letters. Got to Hulmesburgh 1/4 before ten, paid only 25 cents for ten miles. Walked to the works immediately, found Pilling’s brother, learned the following particulars. That uncle had come from New England booking at a Croft, 18th Decr., that since he had worked very regularly not missing a day in 6 or 12 months, spent his money in drink at his lodgings, hardly ever at a public house; much respected and particularly so by P., had grown corpulent, scalded 16th Jan. and only able to work about two days since, was occupied in the dye-house and earned 67 dollars per week, half past four to half past six being a quarter of a day over. Had appeared rather depressed of late and wished to go home, still more so when he heard of my father’s death. A subscription was begun among his men to pay his passage as soon as he was fit to go; this seemed to overcome him as his memory had been failing at times. On the 14th May he eat a hearty dinner, smoked his pipe, went upstairs as if to lie down for half an hour. Came out and entered the carpenter’s shop, shut the door after him and immediately came out with his throat cut; was told of it by two women who happened to be going by. He denied it and walked towards the pump, a doctor was sent for but no help could be afforded and he died in less than an hour; he seemed to repent of it. I walked to the grave, attended by one of the jurors; he said every respect had been shown by a numerous attendance of his fellow-workmen had a good coffin.


About one o’clock I heard a rumbling noise, immediately a flash of lightning; this increased so much that though the shutters were closed, and I covered in bed, I could see a blaze of light which continued some time, then louder thunder, so horrible as to throw me into a perspiration, after some time it abated a little, then returned with redoubled fury with heavy rain and I think hail for nearly an hour; it was truly terrific and I was glad to learn that I had seen nearly the worst. This was admitted by Mr. W. and also the driver of the stage who did not think he had seen it worse excepting once. Mr. Walker sent over to Hulmesburgh for one of his carriages, called with my letter to Mr. Taylor, but did not meet him; then went to Mr. Hulme, agreed to go out together at half past three. On returning to the Hotel, met Mr. Jackson and also Captain Kenney; took a piece of beef and a glass of champagne with my old companions. Hastened to Mr. Hulme’s; found him and three daughters waiting for me in a carriage, drove to the Penitentiary where vicious youths are endeavoured to be reclaimed by useful occupation, such as nails for sofas, cane-bottomed chairs and book-binding. Thence we visited the State prison; the cells constructed in the octagon form; all seen from the centre; a small yard attached to each to walk in for one hour a day; a sentinel placed serving the whole. Then we went to the Alms or Workhouse which is on a magnificent scale; thence to the Hospital, passed over two large bridges. Returned and took tea and spent the evening at Mr. Hulme’s.


Mr. Jackson at breakfast with an old acquaintance from Sicily. Whilst he fetched me the card, I took the opportunity of desiring the old school companion to urge upon his friend more temperance. The streets cleaned by a spray current from a large leathern pipe carried along. Set off at nine for Skoolkill (Schuylkill) to visit John Wood, but found him gone from home to a farm about three miles further to which they were removing in a day or two; only saw his son about 16 years old; enquired about his sister who was very well. Proceeded on to Maryark filled with mills worked by water from the canal; was a desert only 16 years ago. Called upon my return but only saw the same youth. On my way observed the college building by Girard’s money and on getting into the city entered two of the splendid banks, also the Mayor’s Court, and heard two trials, one horse-stealing and the other a lad for stealing a biscuit-cutter; both found guilty, the latter recommended to mercy on account of ill-treatment by his mother. The Judge, Mr. Keen, very clever. Thence to the Museum to look at the Mammoth, a good collection of animals, birds, etc., also some good portraits of distinguished people, amongst them Priestley and Paine. Called upon Mr. James Taylor, invited to tea as I was going so soon and intended being with Dr. Furness on Sunday. Thence to the great ship 74 by 20 yards and 20 yards high. Called again upon Ridings, also James Mason and then to Mr. Taylor’s and finished at the Hulmes’s 12 o’clock.


Slept very soundly, called up exactly at 5, the steamer sailed soon after six. A vast crowd of people some to N.Y. and others to Baltimore. Took breakfast soon after seven, the steamer 50 by 19 yards. Met with Richard Crook. A very extraordinary dust over the city of Baltimore; a very great wind soon came to the steamer so that it was hardly possible to stand upon deck.

After dinner called upon a young man at Hofman’s who kindly walked with me through the city. Greatly disappointed with the Cathedral, only a very plain edifice with two good pictures; charged 1/4 dollar, by a zealous old Catholic who seemed shocked by the heresy of an old man who wished to go behind the altar. Then we walked to a beautiful fine column of white marble, surmounted by a large figure of Washington. Came to the Court House, better than that at Philadelphia; thence to the Exchange. From the column we had a very delightful view of the country all round. Wrote to Thos. Dean, desiring a letter or newspaper to be forwarded to Washington and again to Quebeck after two or three weeks; mentioned writing home from Washington and Boston.

Bought a large pike for 18 cents. Visited the Museum, also had music and singing and a good imitation of singing birds. Went to bed soon after ten; the bread at Baltimore very good. The horses’ tails not cut in this country, being so useful in driving away the flies.


Had a very restless night, not expecting to go to sleep and then heated and feverish, got up soon after five. This hotel six storeys high, a square of nine windows besides outbuildings, above 170 bedrooms, ours N. Called with Miss Crosdale’s letter to Mr. Grundy. This hotel more extensive than any. The road to Washington very hilly. Buzzards, a species of eagle soaring high in the air. Some disturbance by Indians, muskets placed in threes and fours. The soldiers and officers in curious working dress, the land generally very poor. Two other buzzards hovering over some carrion that they could smell. Arrived at Washington at two o’clock; passed the Capitol which is a splendid building. After dinner a very heavy close shower of rain with thunder; cleared up soon and the evening proved delightful. Called upon Francis Taylor who keeps an extensive book store and has also a circulating library. He seems a little, shrewd intelligent young man about 22, has been nearly seven years from home. Speaking of this country he said how a man may get on to a certainty if he exerts himself, more a matter of chance in the old country. Gadsby’s Hotel very large but not so neat as Bunker’s, or Head’s, particularly the former; the provisions not nearly so good. Learned there were upwards of 250 rooms, our key being 102. Not feeling very well, partly occasioned by too much exertion in Philadelphia.


Passed a very good night, not seeing the lightning which R. Crook said had been very vivid.

Francis Taylor called upon us and walked with us to the Capitol, a beautiful pile of buildings though defaced by painting. Heard a sermon Matthew vi and verse 2, in the House of Representatives, a beautiful place something like the nisi prius Court at Lancaster. Each member has his own chair with a small desk before him; this space keeps enlarging from the centre where the Speaker is placed; a large gallery behind open to the public, that on the other side for ladies.

Commenced writing a letter, being too warm to walk and there being no particular object. In the course of the afternoon the clouds began to gather, soon after six there were flashes of lightning, which continually increased with thunder, wind and rain truly astonishing. Set off alone to the Unitarian Church, R. C. nothing minding, and in fact the streams would not have suited his morocco boots. Just able to get along between every flash, found no service in consequence of the storm; managed to get safe back, and afterwards engaged in witnessing the sublime spectacle which continued till after nine; very fortunate that it came on so early as our sleep was not disturbed, but made pleasanter by the coolness of the atmosphere. The staircases to the galleries of Congress and many places covered with tobacco spitting.


Passed a comfortable night, walked out before breakfast and had a pleasant chat with F. T. During breakfast two or three boys driving away the flies by means of large ostrich feathers. Find that it is not common to sell slaves by public auction. F. T. said it was believed that if made free next winter, one third would die for want; but on mentioning St. Domingo he could make no reply, he said they were a different race of men. At ten we were taken in a coach by Mr. White, M.P. for New York, to see the President; waited a short time in an ante-room with others, then were ushered into a large room furnished with books and papers. A tall, straight, old, thin-faced man with grey hair rose, and on my name being mentioned he bowed and shook hands. After a little conversation about losing his teeth by attempting artificial ones, which had dragged the remainder out until only his wise teeth remained, we left him, bowing and shaking hands again. Walked into parts of the house or palace; saw a very noble room where about 1500 attend five or six times a year. Rode in the same carriage to the Capitol; and were shown into the Hall of Representatives; a great many members present but not easily heard in consequence of the muttering in the House. Thence walked through the Dome containing several pictures, the Declaration of Independence, Surrender of Burgoyne and Cornwallis, and Washington giving up his Commission. Thence went to the Senate; was introduced to Mr. Clay who could not tell me respecting R. Monks, as the cholera had made terrible ravages last year at Lexington.


Got up 1/4 before 5. Left Washington at 1/4 before 6. Arrived at Alexandria at 7; ran into the Museum till breakfast. The bridge across the Potomack more than a mile long. Got to Mount Vernon at eleven. Very well received by means of a letter brought by R. C. from a Miss Adams of Philadelphia. Shown through the house, saw the key of the Bastille presented to Washington by T. Paine, also the Library as left by W. Then visited the Tomb, a very plain brick front with an iron door more like an oven. Walked through the garden back to the house; partook of some cake and wine.

Some parts of the road very rough; lost our track for some time; very few people, only now and then a negro to ask. Got back just in time to dinner and escaped the rain and thunder being the 4th successive night. Learned that something interesting was going on at the Capitol, as several members were hastening to it. Found the Senate closed against the public. The Representatives’ Hall very full and some interesting debates, particularly the notice respecting Lafayette’s death, and also remuneration to the families of the French sufferers at Toulon.

R. C. is considered very fond of show prefers very tight boots, yet has four or five corns on each foot. Thinks we could not do without wigs and gowns in our English Courts of Justice. Wrote to C. D. by R. Crook who will put it into the office at N.Y. Paid for the gig to Mount Vernon, 4 dollars, though the usual charge for a day is only 3. Mentioned writing home to Mr. B. from Boston. R. C. mentioned his uncle Tipping getting L5000 and not spending L500.


Got up at six and walked to F. Taylor’s; after breakfast enquired for a letter at the bar, then at the post office but was disappointed. Visited the Patent Office, endless variety of models of all kinds. Then to Pishey Thompson who kindly offered to go with me and also invited me to tea and to bring F. T.

Went with F. T. to the Army Office, and saw a great many likenesses of Indian Chiefs; then to the Naval Office; saw the bags containing conquered flags, and also models of ships. Thence we visited the room containing the original Declaration of American Independence; also several treaties containing the seals and signatures of George 3rd and Bonaparte, Louis Philippe, Bernadotte, etc., etc., and what was still more extraordinary, a drawer containing many gold and silver medals, with a most valuable gold snuff box studded with diamonds presented by the Emperor Alexander, valued at L1000; all these things were left open entirely to us, without any other person in the room; this I consider very wrong as leading into temptation and I predict they will soon have some plunderer, either Yankee or foreigner; on going away we expressed our surprise at the want of discretion; they said they had only missed one small gold coin. Thence I drove to the Capitol, visited both Chambers and also the Library which is beautiful and well-furnished. I saw Cobbett’s works. On coming to dinner I met my old Scotch friend Rowlandson with a countryman coming out to purchase land. Went again to Congress; heard some animated debates concerning the Indian States. Spent the last evening very pleasantly at Mr. Thompson’s where I had the pleasure to meet the Unitarian Minister, Mr. Paulfrey I think, also young Taylor, Mr. Rowlandson and his friend.


Found another person in R. C.’s bed which made a little more precaution necessary. Rose half past four, a very pleasant morning. Tasted the second piece of pineapple last night; very cheap, not more than 8 or 10 cents.

Taken to the boat in an omnibus an hour too soon, this a pretty general practice. Sailed 1/4 past seven, observed some boats not more than one yard across and about 5 yds. long like small canoes. Saw two turtles opposite to Washington Fort; they dived instantly; saw a good deal of grass on the Potomack, which is supposed to be carried off the land by the hurricanes. Thunder and lightning every evening but the last whilst at Washington. Dined at Fredricksburgh; paid 50 cents, and 5 dollars to Charlottesville, the road so far splendid, through woody country. Two intelligent persons in the stage, one addicted to chewing much tobacco and spitting; the matter was argued. Saw the first snake lying dead on the road side, about one yard long. The worm fence generally used. The trees generally ringed, an easy way of clearing the wood. The roads paved in some places by logs of wood thrown across. Stopped at Chestnut Hill for supper nearly half past eleven; had coffee, chickens, honey, and was charged 50 cents; on being complained of they said great uncertainty as to number; had to provide for 10 or 12 and sometimes only two or three came. The driver did not whip much, but spoke to his horses kindly, as Punch, Sammy, Phoebe, etc.

Got to Orange Court 1/4 past one, told we should be called at three; objected to a double-bedded room, afterwards shown another to myself, found the charge only 25 cents. The greater part of the negroes are slaves; one 40 years of age, worth 400 or 450 dollars; not allowed to remain here when freed; frequently bought by dealers who chain them together; the worst are generally disposed of first.


Rested very well; rose at half past three and set off at four; the road worse than any existing coal pit road I ever saw in England, full of ruts with stony rocks and stumps of wood projecting. Arrival at Gordonville to breakfast at six; paid 50 cents which I could not grudge as the coffee was very good. The road generally better, but in one or two places worse than ever I had seen before; many pigs and long-nosed boars with bristles like porcupines, active in discovering snakes; a black snake 2 feet long killed by the coachman’s whip; a little farther on a large lizard; a young hare and two partridges; beautiful trees rising very high on both banks; several saw-mills; the planks covering the bridges are loose and some of them slender. Got to Charlottesville at ten; part of the way very sleepy, so that there is danger of falling especially when jolting.

Dined at Brookville, the first Blue Ridge Mountain, good plain dinner with excellent milk and honey. Walked up the mountain, saw great quantities of whinberries; a delightful stream of water near the summit.

Arrived at Staunton at seven, very sleepy the last stage; sometimes the driver and I asleep at the same time, and the road very hilly, quite wonderful that I should have arrived safe. Many of the houses here are built as in Switzerland; trees are just squared and notched, or dove-tailed at the ends; sometimes the interstices are filled with clay or mortar. The wild vine climbs to the top of the highest trees.


Rose at four having slept very soundly, a natural consequence of only two hours the night before and riding outside all day. Disappointed about getting a seat with the driver, which was occupied by a coloured man whom they would not permit to go inside. Found the passengers truly American, asking many questions and lauding the country. Passed through a forest chiefly of oak. A branch of walnut brushed across the coach and left a perfume behind. Paid for supper and bed 75 cents. Arrived 1/4 past seven A.M. Paid for breakfast 50 cents, the usual price in this town because not much frequented except at certain seasons to the spring. Breakfasted at Jenning’s Gap. Just before ascending a steep part of the mountain I got out to walk but it began to rain and I had to resume my seat. The streams of mud through which we dashed were quite astounding. On descending we found no rain. Dined at Charrodale on venison taken in the mountains, 50 cents. One of our travellers, a German who plays on the guitar and the pianoforte, along with three others; he sang the “Swiss Boy” to us.

I here mounted the roof of the coach as the blacks were not permitted to enter it; before we got to the foot of the mountain there came on a terrible storm of thunder and lightning with tremendous rain. It cleared up and we had a beautiful drive over the mountain before descending to the warm springs. We descended safely, if the drag chain had snapt we should have been thrown down the precipice. Got to Warm Springs at seven; took coffee. Then took the bath which seemed very hot, though only called the Warm Springs, 96 degrees. Felt very warm in bed though not disagreeably so. Most of the trees are oak and pine.


Slept soundly after the bath so that I did not hear the thunder. The bedroom I hope the smallest I shall meet with; got up at half past four but not able to shave; obliged to sleep in my shirt, as the night-shirt was made wet by crushing a pineapple into the bag. On the road I stept down to feel the Hot Spring which was hot indeed, I did not learn the degrees. Breakfasted at Maurice Hill. Drove over mountains chiefly covered with oaks and pines; the chief danger in crossing these mountains is the snapping of the drag chain. Dined nearly one mile from Sulphur Springs; a good deal of company; ran down to the spring, the water a sulphur taste. Took leave of fellow passengers consisting of an elderly lady and her daughter of the name of Parker of Philadelphia, a family from Baltimore; a gentleman about sixty with his wife and two daughters, one not more than seven years, and a middle-aged lady born in London. We had spent two or three days very pleasantly and parted reluctantly. I received an invitation to their house. Set off to Lewisburgh and arrived a little before six; a little thriving place. The hill before descending to the White Sulphur Spring I find is the back-bone, as the streams flow each way; eastward into the Atlantic, and westward into the Mississippi. For some time past the negroes have been so numerous that whites have appeared rather strange. Some of the trees that are hollow are fired to drive out the squirrels, and others have been fired by lightning and others split by the same means. A double-bedded room.


Rose at half past three. Found my companion to be a member of Congress. There were two others in the stage, also a pleasing lady, wife to one of the members, also a young man, H. C. Hart, a midshipman, who was returning from a sail round the world, also a lively Frenchman. Breakfasted at Kamley. Dined at Deak.

The road as usual very hilly, covered with oak, pines, etc., also a curious honeysuckle and rhododendrons; the Hawk’s Nest a jutting rock, 1100 feet high and a magnificent view of the river which does not appear 20 yards wide and is more than 200. Also the hills covered with trees, those below looking mere shrubs.

As we came near the Falls of Kanawha the bridge had been washed down, therefore we were ferried over; the road for some time carried alongside the rocks overhanging the river. Arrived 1/4 before ten at Kanawha, got supper and to bed at 1/4 past ten, to be called up at half past three. Eight beds in a large room; the window wide open, but I selected one of the beds the farthest off and secured my trousers under my pillow. The names of the two M.P.’s were Mr. Doon and Marshall McLatcher. Here I had the first introduction to mosquitoes, but they behaved rather mercifully, or perhaps my blood was not to their taste.


Rose half past three; dressed without a glass. On the road observed two little bears chained; they are fed one or two years and then eaten; these were about two months old. Also saw a quantity of pigs. A beautiful drive along the Kanawha. Indians farm on this side; mountains of fine timber on the other. Breakfasted 16 miles from the Falls, on good coffee and honey. Plenty of bucks’ horns hung in the yard. Another young bear chained in a yard to be fed and eate,000 pigs driven last year through one turnpike gate. Large salt-works, the brine is pumped up and evaporated. Good coals are drawn out of the mountains on both sides of the valley, fine springs of gas escaping out of the surface which ignited on applying a live coal. The negroes said it would continue burning a week or two unless put out by rain.

Waited at Charleston nearly an hour and then found the coach filled with passengers, my seat particularly hot and disagreeable, so that I got outside; the driver refused to have more than one with him. I insisted on the seat, at length the other person went upon the roof, and I had a pleasant ride through hilly country covered with forest trees. On descending the hills one of the horses ran the coach wheel a little on the bank, so as nearly to throw it down the precipice. Again we forded the river in consequence of the bridge being washed away. Arrived at Guyandotte on the Ohio at half past eleven, got some coffee and entered the mail steamboat, where I slept pretty well notwithstanding the lightning and the shaking of the vessel.


Rose half past five at the sound of a bell so that the beds could be adjusted before breakfast; shaved and washed my mouth in iced water. Walked on shore to Portsmouth; saw a basket of offal beef thrown into the river; a warm morning, the ice on the butter steaming, 17 dishes of hot meat besides vegetables for the people. Paid to Maysville including breakfast and bed 3 dollars. Very much pleased with the cabin boy singing about “Father fighting for him and liberty,” “Tennessee and liberty.”

Arrived at Maysville at half past one.

Took a julep consisting of 1-1/2 glass of wine with plenty of sugar and ice, also several herbs, mint, etc., mingled together, making a richly flavoured beverage. Took some dinner but found nothing good but some cucumber and onion. Paid fare to Lexington, 4 dollars. Passed yesterday a chapel made of squared pines dove-tailed together. At sunset I and Mr. Hart the young midshipman, went and bathed in the Ohio, most delightfully warm and the current very strong. The river rose last winter but one, 63 feet.

Maysville, a very pretty place to stop a day or two. The beach is high and consequently has a fine view of the steam boats, which are often passing up and down this noble river.


Rose soon after six as the stage to proceed in does not come in till eight. Slept pretty well till about twelve, when a negro came to put down the window as he said a storm was coming; presently I heard thunder which became louder and was followed by heavy rain. At the hotel here, three fans were made to move overhead to cool and drive away the flies. It was pulled by a nice black girl. Paid for dinner, supper, bed and breakfast one dollar. The ferryboat moved across by means of six horses revolving round. No cyder to be had here, everyone drinking spirits or ale, the julep is called a hailstorm. Passed over some of the best and worst roads in the U.S. some limestone, and macadam and limestone. Came to the blue or sulphur springs resembling Harrogate; took some lemon juice in the water. Arrived at Hillsburgh at half past seven, having had nothing to eat since breakfast at seven. At Paris I parted with Mr. and Mrs. Marshall, and Mr. Hart the young midshipman, with considerable regret. Mr. M. had to explain on the way to his constituents. Mr. McLatcher continued with me to Lexington where we arrived at ten o’clock. After getting some coffee I hastened to bed, found three beds in the room, only one occupied. On the way yesterday we found a good deal of hemp grown, and much of it manufactured into bagging, etc. The land rolling or undulated is generally well cultivated.


Rose soon after six in expectation of finding out my old friend R. M.; rather disappointed to find from the innkeeper who is an Irishman, that the Monks were dispersed, only one remaining in the neighbourhood. He offered to walk with me to make further enquiry. At daybreak the drums announced the Day of Independence, which I find is to be celebrated in an extraordinary manner at Frankford. A half-brother of Richard Monks was sent for by the innkeeper; by him I learned the melancholy news of his brother’s death which happened in Sep. He had left Lexington and settled at Louisville 3 or 4 months, then bought the half of a brother’s estate opposite Troy on the Ohio; there his daughter married and settled at . Another son at Louisville keeping a coffee house. Walked with Mr. Monks to the College and heard two orations, vehement and abusive of the old country, lauding France and even Spain, the latter on account of Isabella who patronized Columbus, eulogised Bonaparte and declaimed against Russia for the treatment of the Poles; several negroes were peeping at the three doorways, but not allowed to enter or even to listen to an oration in favour of liberty.

Paid 5-1/2 dollars to Louisville. At home I am considered a quick eater, but here I have not half done before most have left the room. A gentleman I met here said the labour of the negroes in Louisiana cultivating sugar was excessive, so that the women have hardly any children. A factory 5 yards by 8, two storeys, 4 windows on one side, turned by three miserable blind horses. Disappointed that R. Monks’ brother did not call, as he kept me waiting all afternoon. Slept two or three hours till the stage left at 12.


Awakened at half past eleven luckily; only two passengers but these took special care of themselves, lying along the seat sleeping all the way. The road exceedingly rough, so as to prevent me having a minute’s sleep. Arrived at Frankford at six A.M., a very crowded inn. Never saw more drinking going on, all sorts of spirits, etc.; broken glass on the floor and an immense spitting box. A good road most of the way, limestone macadamised. A good many beech trees with some vines as thick as my leg climbing to the top. Only two passengers from Frankford and an agreeable breeze, so that I could not have done better in my own carriage. On coming out of Frankford we passed over a high old crazy bridge; changeable weather, thunder and rain and still very oppressively hot between the gleams. Arrived at Louisville 1/4 past five P.M. and felt less tired considering that I had not been in any bed but moving on for some days. Went to enquire for Mr. Hulme but found the canal office two miles off, therefore set about to find young Monks, but could learn nothing till I called at the Post Office where I got the information. Took coffee, then called upon him. Found him very busy supplying with spirits, and gave him Mr. Brandreth’s letter and promised to call again when he was not so busy. Retired to bed at half past eight.


Rose half past six, dream about my dear father; got a good breakfast with plenty of good milk. Took a hack to Mr. Hulme, at the canal office, for which I paid 25 cents. Heard Mr. H. was at Louisville but expected immediately as they were repairing one of the locks. Shewn through a very large steamer, the Mediterranean, 600 tons capable of 800, and boilers 250 tons, consumes 36 tons of wood daily, sometimes goes to New Orleans in five days, 1500 miles.

Attended the Unitarian Church and heard an eloquent and very unusual discourse from 1 Ti ch. and 4 verse by Mr. Pierpoint; all the tunes known to me. On coming away I heard a very noisy preacher, a Revivalist, the man with me in the stage yesterday; a plain, poor chapel, the poor blacks in the galleries. After the sermon and singing several times, they were invited into the Church; about 8 or 10 godly women and children enrolled themselves. Called upon young Monks, had a pleasant chat and afterwards a walk along the esplanade. The canal is cut 2 miles through rock to avoid the falls. Came over the ground where a young man had been murdered, two out of four persons were found guilty and ordered to be executed in a month. Heard Mr. Pierpoint again this evening from the text “Pure religion and undefiled,” the very best sermon I ever heard religion a science of duties, as we stand related to each other, head, heart and hands; the Lord’s Prayer if changed into synonymous language would be designated only a good moral sermon.

Saw Mr. Hulme this evening.


Perspired much in the night; got up and dried myself with a towel; not much alarmed as my pulse strong and regular; perhaps it beats high in the thought that I am now at the most distant point from home.

Mr. Hulme called upon me and walked towards the steam boats; presented me with a chart of the Ohio. Called upon Joseph Monks, he sat with me on the steamer, then left and sent me six bottles of cyder. I promised him to write about their family. Left at 12 instead of 10. The table drawn out in a curious manner, a snack consisting of tongue, ham, almonds and raisins. Dined about half past one.

A long political debate in which a poor Jacksonian came off sadly worsted; considerable commercial knowledge displayed, but evidently too speculative a spirit, and consequently credit much thought of. At six took some coffee of which I am never tired. So hot that I pulled off my coat and handkerchief. The evening very pleasant sparks from the chimney enough to fire the boat, this nearly the case with the Mediterranean the large steamer I saw yesterday. A grand sky, beautifully reflected on the Ohio; millions of sparks from the boilers with flashes of lightning, afterwards almost one continued blaze with much thunder.


Rose at four having rested tolerably only; felt a weakness in the small of my back; breakfasted on coffee without milk, excepting a little given me by one of the passengers. Paid for passage 4 dollars including lunch, dinner, supper and breakfast. Found the sparks last night had burnt into the deck. Agreed with a fellow to carry my portmanteau to the Erin, another steamer for 25 cents, his own terms, but found it uncertain when she was going, therefore ordered the baggage to the hotel on the brow. The man wanted more but was silenced by the innkeeper who said it was enough for all day. Arrived at Cincinnati at eight A.M.

1500 hams hung up in one room plastered over with lime. A large foundry, 8 oxen drawing one tree. At one the mail came up going to Wheeling. Paid 6 dollars to Columbus; nobody but a French woman and her child for ten miles. Here at Reading whilst changing horses I got some most excellent bread, butter and milk for which I paid 12-1/2 cents. This seems a better conveyance than the old crazy steamer. Took a cup of buttermilk for which they would not receive anything. A truly corduroy road, that is logs of wood laid across the road. Nearly upset into the river by running against a tree. Arrived at Lebanon 1/4 before 7. This last stage to Wainville, the driver drove most furiously and the horses went like mad. Why should tin drop-spouts be used instead of wood or lead? Almost everywhere the footpaths in the streets are paved with bricks.


Got to Springfield at half past five, a restless trembling night; such roads and such furious driving as enough to break arms and legs, through pits of water after the logs failed. Pretty good land divided into small farms, woods rather than forests; rather flat and the road bad and muddy, still worse, exceeding any I ever saw and yet this is called a national road. Well there were no other passengers or we should have been hauled out. Got to Columbus, it was the last twenty miles, all mud, so that we could only walk most of the way. Coming into Columbus such a flood that fields of corn are spoiled, and the road, half a yard of granite washed away; the old bridge also washed away so that we had to be ferried. Paid to Wheeling 6-1/2 dollars. At the next stage I was informed my name was not entered as having paid my fare. During the night the coach stopt and I and the other passengers were desired to get out, the horses were completely set fast in the mud; after resting some time they made a further effort; we scrambled through the mud and got in; very surprising that the roads are not better protected by railing or walls, not even over the mountains or ridges.


Passed a nicely situated little town called Rushott at five. Only two passengers, therefore able to sleep pretty well. Arrived at Zanesville half past six, the last stage beautifully macadamised. Sour bread and poor coffee. Got them to allow my name to be entered for Wheeling as paid for. Arrived at Cambridge at twelve. The driver managed the drag chain by treading upon an iron lever. The last 20 miles very hilly. A large waggon drawn by horses with sets of bells. After walking I found the coach nearly filled so that I got on with the driver. Observed some coal breaking out on the top of one of the high hills; this is generally the case so that they tunnel out from the valleys and are not troubled with water. Arrived at this side of the Ohio 1/4 past nine P.M., too late to be ferried across, so that after taking the mail at Cincinnati at one o’clock to arrive at Wheeling in 48 hours, here, after 56 hours we are obliged to stop in a poor inn, and to take a bed with four others in the same room. These are the miseries of travelling; delays upon the road, especially being confined a day or two in some little uninteresting spot so far, however, I have been pretty fortunate, and should not complain, but like all poor unreasonable mortals, the more we have, the more we wish to have. The last stage or two very hilly, covered as usual with forest. This I believe is the character of the country on both sides of the Ohio.


Rose soon after four and ferried across the Ohio in two places in consequence of an island; the ferry impelled across by means of a windlass letting down frame work into the water, and altering the position of the boat. When arrived at Wheeling hotel could hear of no boat till evening. Went again to bed; got up at nine, felt a little earache and not much appetite for breakfast, occasioned by disappointment at the delay. At one dined with improved appetite and actually eat an apple dumpling. Sat and read several newspapers without finding much from England; then read some good letters in the “North American Magazine”; felt in better spirits.

Took my place for Pittsburg, 3 dollars, visited a collection of wild beasts; amused by a monkey riding a Shetland pony, but most gratified by seeing a rhinoceros and elephant each four years old; the former had worn his teeth very much; both feed chiefly upon hay. The keeper puts his head twice a day into the lion’s mouth, dangerous only as far as the animal being disturbed by some of the spectators. A camel or dromedary (only one hump) also four years old. Sailed from Wheeling 1/4 past seven; the evening most delightful, the air warm and fragrant, the sky remarkably clear; the stars and moon appeared nearer. Found from conversation with the Captain and others that Tuesday or Wednesday have been considered very warm, also more thunder and lightning than they had often seen.


Rose at two, got into the stage at Steubenville, at three the coach quite full; ferried across the Ohio; passed through Paris; the country is very hilly and the soil poor. Stopped at Florence to breakfast, the remainder of the way hilly. On approaching Pittsburgh reminded of home by the coal and smoke; arrived at one o’clock. More than twenty steamers lying in the river, here the Ohio is joined by the Alleghany, the latter a much clearer river. In the stage met with an intelligent young man on his way to Erie, so concluded to stop at the same hotel. Paid to Wasson (?) half way to Erie 3 dollars. Walked to some iron works and saw them make rails very quickly, also some cannon boring. Walked across the aqueduct 400 yards long, cost 112,000 dollars. Called at the Post Office, but again disappointed.

Very sultry this evening, and I feel as if not likely to sleep; this is one of the depressing periods. After coffee I took a walk to the Catholic Church situated on an eminence. Pittsburgh is in a valley surrounded on all sides by verdant hills, and smoky as one of our English towns. This evening is so serene that the moon does not appear half its usual distance from the earth. Feel much relieved and refreshed by the walk and meditation. The first fence I had seen is here, and this by way of protecting the road, also the first time I had seen any horses’ tails docked.


Got up at half past four: the stage nearly full. Observed almost the first potatoes in this neighbourhood. Crossed the Alleghany by means of a steam ferry. Paid for breakfast 25 cents. Arrived at Butler at one; hilly most of the way; a good many Dutch settlers in this part. Several large ant hills. Paid for the dinner, very good veal cutlets and excellent coffee, only 25 cents, the cheapest dinner I have had in America. The interesting young man mentioned yesterday is a Mr. Kennedy, a painter at Meadville, a Presbyterian; said they had in their town a Mr. Channing, an Unitarian and nephew to Dr. C. but not considered so clever. The coach we travelled in to-day is almost new, cost 520 dollars; this day fortnight in crossing the creek this side the Alleghany River, it was washed down the stream nearly half a mile rolling over all that way; only one passenger and the driver remained with it, and both escaped; had all the other passengers remained in, it is supposed the accident would not have happened. More like a Sabbath evening, the people seated at their log houses reading. The moon very splendid and apparently much nearer the earth than with us in England. Paid for the remainder of my passage to Erie 3 dollars; also for tea 25 cents.


Passed a very restless night, scarcely sleeping at all. One of the passengers sick and he feared it was the cholera. This made me feel uncomfortable and I wished to sit with the driver, but was deterred by being told of Kennedy’s brother, who had the year before fallen from the same stage and been killed on the spot, supposed to have been asleep.

Got to Meadville situated on the rising part of an extended vale. Here I parted with Mr. K. and his sick companion who is a paper maker. An old intelligent Irishman who had come out thirty years ago, and had done very well, was one of the passengers; he spoke of his domestic afflictions and particularly the death of his wife. Very warm but luckily only 4 passengers. The last drive of 15 miles has been very warm and a rough road, yet the horses do not appear much distressed; got a glass of buttermilk. Dined at Waterford; paid 25 cents. The stage filled; the sun had got to my side of the coach; a slow drive and choked with dust, by far the most disagreeable ride I have had. Got to Erie at half past four, told there was no boat to Buffalo till morning. I went upstairs to wash and put on a clean shirt, and was then informed of a boat, but I could not get ready in time; though perhaps it was only a trick of the innkeeper, it may be as well to get a good night’s repose; without now and then a check I should in uninteresting places be hurrying on too fast and knock myself up. Fell in with a pleasing intelligent young man; now that they were out of debt I said they might improve the public roads he said grants were occasionally made, but were objected to as unconstitutional.


Got up at half past six, felt restored and now think it better than pushing on in the steamboat last night. The young man confirmed the old Irishman’s account of the student at Meadville, viz. that the young one we had seen would be at his studies in the morning, and in the afternoon discharge his board by working as a blacksmith. Accompanied on board the steamer by the innkeeper; found the wind favourable; sailed soon after 8 A.M. not a nice boat and the engine out of order, so that we shall be late before we get into Buffalo. Read in a periodical belonging to one of the passengers a terrible story written by Lord Morpeth. A most delightful breeze on the lake; how different to yesterday when stewed on the coach and covered with dust. Had some good singing on board by Methodists; got out at Portland and had a most delicious bath before dinner. Called at Dunkirk, also at Silver Creek; prevailed upon the ladies (Methodists) to sing again; paid for passage two dollars and 1/2 for dinner. Read a good deal in the “Temperance Intelligencer,” in which a correspondent attempted to prove that the wine approved in Scripture was not fermented; another disapproves of the use of cyder and recommends the cutting down of apple trees. Landed at Buffalo at 8 P.M. a very pleasant sail. Some trouble in getting my portmanteau to the inn; an offer from Irishmen who did not know the place. Here informed of a change in the English Ministry.


Rose at six and felt somewhat languid, having never I suppose had time for such feelings. No walking in America; taken down by stages to the boats however short the distance. Bought a pennyworth of cracked hickory nuts. A delightful breeze. Met on the steamer an English gentleman, his lady and child. Set off in a stage and left Buffalo at eleven A.M.; found it a pleasant drive mostly along the banks of the river. Arrived at Niagara soon after four P.M. Immediately set off to the Falls; engaged till nearly seven without thinking of food, though I had eaten nothing since six this morning. Much struck with the Bridge over the Rapids to the Goat Island. Then walked towards the ferry, an immense sheet of water though only a small part compared with the Horse Shoe; returned and crossed over to Goat Island down Biddle’s Staircase between the two cascades; afterwards to the bridge that overhangs the tremendous Fall, a huge piece of rock below occasionally visible when the foam was blown away; the vast clouds of mist rising very considerably into the air, and the stream for a great distance as white as milk. Ascended the tower, whence there is a more extensive view of the Rapids above as well as the river below. Again, after tea I went over the same ground and had a moonlight view of this most wonderful spectacle.


Rose before six, again visited the Falls. Left soon after eight; paid the porter 12-1/2 cents, but he wanted more for cleaning my shoes. A favourable passage across as the wind blew the spray upwards; the water in parts much agitated; the ferryman demanded six cents extra for my baggage; nobody to carry it forward up the hill to the hotel; a man who came in the boat offered to carry it for 50 cents; this I refused and set off with it myself. I had not carried it more than two-thirds up the hill before I repented; the man came up and agreed for 25 cents; as it proved further than I expected I gave him a glass in addition. After changing my flannel shirt and getting a glass of milk I set off to the Falls, found a party going under the cascade; undressed and put on trousers, an oil-case jacket with a belt and a pair of rough shoes, and descended the staircase. There were two ladies but they were placed under the care of the guide. The rock projects amazingly, the path is narrow and rather slippery being constantly wet with the spray; at one place we were told to keep our heads down and hold our breath. I must say it proved more of an adventure than I expected; it resembled a tremendous shower of rain blown at us with the utmost fury; nothing much is to be seen, and I scarcely think it worth the trouble; the visit might be rendered much safer by means of a chain fastened alongside of the rock. A more irregular confused hotel, I never was in. Walked to the Falls alone by moonlight.


Rose half past five; paid six cents for shoes; walked to the Fall, still more magnificent than ever; green where there is most water; the whole Horseshoe filled with vapour rising a vast height, and at the bottom the water is rolled away one complete mass of foam, white as snow, too dazzling to behold; the spray rises in beautiful clouds and falls in gentle drops nearly a mile off. Paid for Niagara one dollar. Left at eleven, called to see the Whirlpool formed by the river going into a bay; then Brock’s monument 170 steps; giving a fine view of the lake. Allowed 2-1/2 dollars for book and map. The stage gave way on going out, found the leather spring had broken, but we managed to go on slowly to Niagara. Bathed in Lake Ontario, then dined for 50 cents. Found one of our passengers to be Major Penn, who had been a good while in the East Indies and other parts of the world; also a young Irishman, a Canadian and an American. Sailed 1/4 before six; arrived at York at half past nine, went on shore to buy “The Tourist,” and a map, but found the shops closed; returned and went to bed. The berths double and if fully occupied would be very disagreeable. Felt tired in the knee-joints, supposed from descending the staircase at the Falls and going up Brock’s monument. Got a comfortable cup of tea, bread good, etc. Paid 6 dollars for passage including board. More satisfaction here than waiting for the Great Britain to-morrow; our passengers only about 8 or 10 and the cabin spacious and neat.


Passed a good night and rose a little before seven. Breakfast at 8 on tea and toast with some good veal cutlets. Read a Canada paper containing rather more Bristol news than the American papers, also a conceited account of the Falls. A very pleasant breeze. An intelligent gentleman from New York explained the reason for such excessive labour in this country, that a man was better rewarded, and after getting a few dollars he was stimulated to further exertion, and again he was able to make more of these savings by further investments or speculations. He thought there was much less learning among the young men in America; they became impatient to go into business; all at 21 years feel independent and able to get on, and consequently little under the control of the parents unless wealthy.

Left Toronto this morning at seven, arrived at Port Hope half past four; got to Cobourg half past six, went on shore and bathed again in the Lake Ontario, found the water cooler. A group of young women with fresher complexions than I had seen before in America. A head wind and the water considerably agitated. Walked the deck till after nine with two young men that are purposing going to Quebec.


During the night the boat pitched and rolled more than I expected. Got up at half past five, found some difficulty in shaving and a little qualmish. Passed two islands covered with wood. Made a poor breakfast, the milk had turned sour and I did not like the egg substitute. Went on shore at Kingston; entered a Sunday School but heard only some noisy instruction; then entered the English Church but service not commenced; then a Catholic Church, had some drops sprinkled upon me by the priest. Looked through a new steamer which was being built, a double wheel and the paddles alternately. A great quantity of wheat swept off the deck in our steamer. A great deal of money squandered here in barracks, forts, etc.; two ships rotting upon the stocks. The Rideau Canal comes to this place, only good as furnishing employment, but what becomes of old England? Passed the 1000 islands, rocky and covered with wood. An old Canadian with an elegant bag for tobacco studded with beads. Very sleepy and dull most of this afternoon. At seven came to Brockville a pretty little town situated on rising ground. Arrived at Prescott soon after nine. Cholera reported to be very bad at Quebec, ninety a day dying; still I shall go on, hoping for the best.


Rose at four, got some new milk as a good foundation; paid 1/- English for bed, walked over the new steamboat with air-tubes on each side and two small helms attached to each, a 1-1/2 yd. long and 1/3 deep turning nearly upon the centre, 180 feet long and about 27 wide; two engines. Left at six, breakfasted outside; had a beautiful view of the bank and island. Paid 1/9 and 7 dollars for passage to Montreal. The sail most delightful; in some places the surface became suddenly disturbed, one side a whirlpool, the other boiling up. The Durham boats, as they are called, are drawn up the river by means of six oxen. Cornwall 1/4 past 11. One of the Durham boats drawn by two horses belly deep in the river because the banks are grassy and soft. Hazel trees different to ours; a good deal of nuts. Passed a very splendid Rapid, called at St. Regis, an Indian village; three young Indians nearly naked, one of them caught a halfpenny thrown a considerable distance, then jumped into the river; sailed with us in our boat then plunged into the water towards the shore; they had very black hair and were very brown. An old female Indian came to beg; also a canoe with two females and a little one. Prevailed on one of the females to sing: thought it a Catholic chant in the Indian language. Saw two canoes all of one piece of wood. Another delightful drive along the banks of the St. Lawrence; more Rapids; also a beautiful garden, almost the first I have seen since my visit to America. Arrived at Montreal at nine. The two last days have been spent delightfully.


Did not rise till seven, having dreamed a good deal about my late dear father. Read some newspapers; then joined Mr. Bradner in a gig up the mountain (Mount Royal); went the wrong way, so that we missed a good deal of the view of the city and river but ascended again; not so pleasant on account of the dust. Walked to the Hotel Dieu to see some ruins, but it proved only a hospital for sick people. Walked into the Cathedral, Notre Dame, a very large building, two galleries on each side and the seats below raised up from the altar. Got back and then walked to the Exchange News Room, read a good many English newspapers but found nothing particularly interesting; thence again to the Cathedral. Just before dinner, four o’clock, I was informed that the steamer was not going to Quebec; could not believe till I went down; they told me the agents had sent orders not to go in consequence of so few passengers, but that they certainly should go to-morrow, when they expected more passengers as there were races at Three Rivers. I and Ready from Bermuda sauntered about till dusk. This is one of the miseries of travelling, to be delayed in some little uninteresting place, or after you have seen all that is worth notice, of which there is very little in Montreal; fortunately the hotel is good enough, everything remarkably clean.


Rose at seven, no inducement to get up sooner. Called at the stage office to enquire about the Post Office and if they knew any Mr. Webster; was told he had left last night, tired of the place, no wonder! Employed all day reading the newspapers; an Indian came down by the wharf in a canoe to sell, asked ten dollars for it; found Major Penn, London; Messrs. White and Livingstone came up. The heat at 4 o’clock 96 degrees, but have passed the day very quietly in a shaded news-room. In addition to the St. George there is the Canadian steamer the Eagle so that I shall surely get away. Was informed that the weather has been unusually hot since the beginning of July, without rain. Whilst in the news-room the chief conversation was the cholera; one of the gentlemen at table said the fear of it had driven away 30 or 40 people from this house; surprised to find myself so comfortable under all these circumstances. Went on board the St. George steamer at eight, a noble vessel beautifully fitted up. On setting off a woman was taken on shore, a young man looked very dismal, and said she was taken with the cholera; she proved to have got into a wrong boat which I took care to inform the young man.


Rose at five having rested very well, though I suspected the bed-clothes not being dry. Went on shore at Three Rivers and into the market; Indians selling coloured baskets; a good supply of eggs and vegetables, also square lumps of sugar made from the maple. Bought a few red currants, notwithstanding the cholera; a number of canoes with different kinds of fish; the eels thicker than ours; just in time for the steamer, will not cut it so fine again. This morning almost chilly; yesterday at 4, 95 degrees and at six, 81. The shores on each side are lined with neat cottages. Good coffee and bread. Soon after nine the eccentric collar of one of the engines broke, so that we shall be some hours late; the other engine is also out of order, so that we may not arrive before 8 or 9. Luckily both were set to rights, and the tide is in our favour so that we now hope to get in at 3. Arrived at Quebec at two and hurried to the Post Office. Startled at sister’s letter having a black wafer, but was greatly delighted to find all well both in it and in C. D.’s. The weather intensely hot. On enquiring for T. Marsden at the P.O. found his son lived next door to the Albion Hotel, and kept a small druggist’s shop; I was shown upstairs; William and young wife with her mother, who had come from New York on a visit with another daughter were there. William looking better but very thin, which they said had been the case during the last three weeks in consequence of so much sickness; the cholera very bad, 29 deaths yesterday. Thomas lives about 1-1/2 miles off. Dined at the Hotel (Albion), walked with William to the hospital and then to his sister’s; the little girl sang for us.


Rose at six. A good night’s rest having supped chiefly upon milk. A thunderstorm at four reconciled us to it, in hopes of its driving away the cholera, which after all I cannot but think is exaggerated. Took a calash with young Fred Andrews, a most intelligent child of 8 years. Went over some romantic country, and in two hours came to an open space on the side of a mountain covered with trees. Fred pointed to his grandmother; she did not know me but was greatly affected. Found Thomas engaged in a small room teaching 26 boys and girls, some coming three miles. He did not know me; but was not so much altered as I expected. His wife soon told me of T.’s irregularities which caused him to leave the school at Quebec, and they had come to this wild place to break his connections; their neighbours gone except two or three the most villainous low Irish. If she left home some of the dram sellers would fetch away hay to pay T.’s shots. After dinner T. and I set off to Beauport Lake; sailed across, caught a nice trout but no other fish, and were only allowed to use the line. A great quantity of raspberries, and there had been many strawberries. His income at one time had been 25 dollars per week. He had received 100 dollars for tuning the organ at the Cathedral.


Made arrangements for setting off to the Falls (Montmorency Falls) at six, but the rain prevented us, almost the first disappointment in all my journey. It cleared up and we set off, a party of five to the Falls; a pleasant drive with several pleasing views of the city; disappointed with the Cascade; the grass wet, and not able to get to the foot; a strong current going to a saw mill. Returned soon after twelve; walked with T. Marsden’s wife to the Potters’ field to see Ainsworth’s grave stone, but did not find it. Then to the Citadel whence I had a magnificent view though not quite clear; and descended by the tremendous staircase, 365 steps with an inclined plane to wind up stone. Crossed over the river in a four horse ferry to see the Indians settled there, but did not find them. On my return the boat had sailed and I was rowed in a canoe by three children; got to the inn a little after four. Found two pairs of stockings missing; got 2/- allowed. Paid 1-1/4 dollars for going to Montmorency. Rain as we set off to the steamboat: sailed at seven on my way home. Between 30 and 40 sat down to tea and coffee, the latter very good. Had some conversation with Mr. Livingstone; found he was a large store-keeper dealing in silks, woollens and cottons.


Very noisy people during the night, apparently great confusion and danger in passing the Rapids. Rose 1/4 past six, hazy almost the first time. Introduced by W. M. to a Mr. Buchanan a surveyo emigrants on the Canada, 12 unable to pay their fare, and their boxes taken as security. A heavy shower of rain cooled the air. Arrived at Montreal at half past four; saw the steamer sailing off to La Prairie though the Captain told me it did not go on Sunday evenings till five. Several of us were very anxious to be getting on to La Prairie; engaged a boat for two dollars more; had a written agreement. Very much troubled not to find the lady and her son and daughter ready for the boat; set off to meet them, came back determined to go on with Mr. Ready as it was getting late. The boatman came to tell me they were all waiting of me; got my luggage on board; a very narrow boat; found a good deal of agitation in the Rapids and the water nearly coming over, but we were all pretty experienced in sailing. On landing was surprised to find the four passengers with their luggage and four boatmen had crossed the St. Lawrence in a canoe. Two calashes were brought up, also a stage with four horses which had been sent in consequence of the steamer not waiting as they expected a signal from the Canada. The Captain behaved very ill, first promising to be in at four, and then telling us it did not sail till five. However, we engaged to go on to St. John’s for two dollars. Arrived after twelve.


Rested very well and rose at seven; a misty morning. Saw some fish, perch, etc., just taken. Sailed at six in the Franklin, the very nicest boat I have ever seen. A delightful morning; leaving the sick cities, Quebec and Montreal, and hastening home in good health and spirits. The Lake Champlain, only about 80 yards wide, and the shores low, covered with brushwood. Paid for passage to Ticonderoga 4-1/2 dollars. The dinner very good, five or six servants with turban caps. The dessert consisted of nuts, almonds, walnuts and raisins; all the spoons, etc., of silver; altogether the very neatest boat I ever saw. The Captain’s room fitted with excellent portraits, in another part all sorts of advertisements, with a beautiful desk for the public use. Asked a dollar for a bottle of porter, then said half a dollar. Took a pint of port wine, charged one dollar; an impudent fellow with one of the waiters saw the bottle, he filled up his glass and drank it off without once looking at me. At Plattsburg on Lake Champlain an American officer came on board and allowed our portmanteaus to pass, on condition they contained only clothes. Very delightful scenery; beautiful islands with distant mountains on each side; a broad road up the mountain; an avalanche. Went on shore at Burlington and had a delightful bathe, the water pleasantly warm and a sandy slope. Quite a crowd at tea so had to attend the second course. Lay down in a berth till 12; then looked after luggage which I found to be all safely locked up; everything managed in the most admirable style; the sailors all in uniform and the boat let down with a rope, so that passengers could be landed with scarcely stopping the boat. At Ticonderoga the greatest hurry for beds; an offer made to pay for double-bedded rooms, so resigned myself to chairs: afterwards had a comfortable bedroom.


A pleasant walk before breakfast, paid 1-1/4 dollar for lodging, breakfast, and fare to Adirondack. Visited the ruined fort at Ticonderoga. Changed seats with a Mr. E. Tech arrived at the foot of Lake George at 10. Walked towards Ticonderoga and returned by water; two saws at work cutting planks; went down below the falls; the river choked with bits of wood from the saw-mills. In descending on the other side two Indian boys were fishing. The mountain is covered with pines and also with bold rocks. We were told the highest mountain took fire about two years ago, and continued in flames more than a week; the dead pines are still remaining. The latter part of the Lake more interesting; several islands.

Arrived at Caldwell a little after seven. Paid the Captain 1-1/2 dollars he not having been able to give me silver out of a 5 dollar note; he then recommended me to be cautious about notes. After much trouble about beds we had tea with old bread, butter, plenty of sweets, also whinberries, etc. At length I prevailed upon a party to leave early and breakfast at Glen Falls. Went to bed before nine.


Rose half past four. Took a seat with the conductor, found it very cool, a wonderful contrast since yesterday. The road very sandy; passed a place where the stage had been upset last night. Got to Glen Falls on the Hudson a little after seven; walked down before breakfast to a little Niagara; it looked very well rushing over the black rock, the river being very considerable. Hazel nuts most abundant. The ride very delightful. Reached Saratoga before 12, according to written agreement being 4-1/2 hours, though only 17 miles. Stopped at Congress Hall Hotel to see as much as possible of the fashionable world; dined at two; 150 to 170 passengers, many with their servants, and some of the gentlemen had their wine cooling in ice-water; some very pretty ladies, and gentlemen rather better looking than ordinary. Purchased a copy of the “American Traveller” for 1-1/2 dollars. Some good singing by a gentleman, also some ladies played very well; afterwards went to a ball at the United States Hotel; saw some curious dancing, whirling one another round very fast. At a loss to find my room N.


Could not sleep after five in consequence of the noise of visitors leaving. Took a walk to the well, drank some water and bought a ring. Left by the railway half past nine; the seat I had was taken by a gentleman who moved, but was revenged by getting a lady to take the place, so I mounted aloft; the breeze was pleasant. Leaving Ballston the carriage ran off the rail, which caused a concussion and seemed like to have squeezed our legs hanging down before; also a disagreeable passage over and under the bridges at Schenectady; on the river Mohawk the same on landing; an interesting but perilous journey, drawn by horses and engine; wound up one place by a stationary engine. Some deep ridges cut through and rather filled up. Arrived at Albany at one. Met with an interesting young Englishman. Paid to Boston 6 dollars. Walked to the river and bought a sweet apple and looked at a pig weighing 1400 lbs. unable to get up without assistance. Visited a planing and grooving mill, the dust from it must make the business very unhealthy; then a grand Baptist Church with six noble columns all of wood; then the Capitol or State House, and the City Hall, whence I had a magnificent view of the city and river Hudson. After tea visited a plane manufactory. Many birds, yellow like the canary. Went to bed at 8-1/2.


Called up at half past twelve to join the stage, and dragged up and down the streets collecting passengers at different inns. Forced to go by another route than had been intended. The stage quite full and two with the driver; one next me pushed me and said he did it more on account of a lady near him: I said nothing, but pushed again; breakfast passed rather sullenly; on returning and finding one of the passengers had left, I said I hoped he found room without pushing; and told him in his regard for the lady, he had not forgotten himself. After this we had a good deal of pleasant conversation. A good deal of white marble cut into slabs for gravestones. At Stockbridge a saw-mill; seven saws going at once. Breakfasted at Seddon, paid 37-1/2 cents for some poor coffee and tough chicken. Dined at Beckett, good pie and pudding with milk 37-1/2 cents. One sixth of the way passed in the dark, 1/6th hilly and sheep land, with now and then a garden and better farms, 2/6ths mountainous and forest, 2/6ths still nicer, farming, great neatness and still better fencing. Passed a long bridge over the river Connecticut, and arrived at Springfield at half past seven P.M.; though only stopping till three in the morning I was shown into the best room I have been in in America. Noticed a hawk flying with a snake in its beak. Went to bed at eight. Paid only 62 cents for tea and a very good and spacious room.


Rose at seven and breakfasted on nothing good but eggs. Passed manufactures of cotton and woollen. Arrived at Worcester at half past one; the neatest town I have ever seen; every house appeared to be newly painted white, and with very pretty gardens. The road afterwards hilly with uneven places where the water gets off the road; the last twenty miles more even; a good part of the way from Albany is stony, and hence there are more walls; in many places the stones are too large to remove and the smaller ones are piled upon them in heaps. I got up to sit with the driver after breakfast, but was forced in by the sun; it became cloudy, and I mounted again, and remained out till the last four miles when it became much colder and was nearly dark. The two last stages, and one yesterday were twenty miles. Both days have been highly favourable, not meeting dust and what there was carried away by the wind. Arrived at Boston half past eight; could not get tea at this great house took milk and bread.


Rose before seven; after breakfast read the paper and then set out for Dr. Channing’s Chapel. Found that he was at Newport, Rhode Island, during the summer and only preaching occasionally during the winter. His colleague Mr. Gannett was gone to an Ordination at Buffalo. Mr. Furniss of Philadelphia was to preach. I set off to hear Mr. Greenwood at King’s Chapel. He read a form of prayer and a stranger preached from Matthew v; but a poor sermon. Mr. G. read the service of the Lord’s Supper; after kneeling, he partook of the bread and wine, then distributed the elements to the communicants, all was very earnestly done at the altar. At the door I was glad to see black women permitted. In the afternoon I went to hear a Mr. Lothrop and was again disappointed, but was pleased by a Mr. Young who preached a discourse on “Faith” from John 20 cha v., mentioned Columbus. Much pleased by a plain and simple address to the Sunday scholars by Mr. Grant. All the three places of worship very nice buildings; the galleries not wide and supported by double pillars, good organ and good singing but not much joined in by the congregation; well attended, but hardly by any poor persons. In the evening went to hear a Mr. Taylor who had been a sailor. His text Exodus v, verse 2.


Got up at six and walked through the Mall, and into the State House and returned to breakfast. Met with a plain and respectable Englishman. Called upon Mr. John Lee, a very respectable old gentleman 76 years old, chatted half an hour and agreed to meet again at three. Returned to the Hotel and ordered a gig for Mount Vernon Church. It came without driver and I had to drive and thread my way through the city. Passed over Cambridge 7810 feet long, walked up and down the cemetery which is superior in locality to Pere la Chaise at Paris, but has not the commanding view. In one part a great many beautiful flowers. The monuments have usually the family name and the Christian name on another side of the obelisk; a truly melancholy walk; a beautiful monument to the memory of Spurzheim. I allowed the horse to have his own way back and he brought me at once near the hotel. At three I called upon Mr. Lee and we had a delightful walk to the wharf and stores; a magnificent range of buildings. Saw a contrivance for hauling ships to be repaired; the machinery turned by horses. Passed over a long wooden bridge to Bunker Hill; from the Monument, partly built, we had a fine view of the town, and returned over another bridge. Invited to take tea with Mr. Lee, but excused myself on account of writing a letter to Mr. B. on which I was engaged all evening. Left it in the care of Mrs. Livingstone.


Rose before six, got cafe au lait at my request. Found the Lowell stage would soon be here; though a mail coach it goes up and down collecting passengers; this enabled me to see more of the town; more than an hour in getting out of it. Took a seat with the driver and though a very hot day found a breeze when in motion; the last fourteen miles, partly a sandy road, we had six horses. Saw three hop plantations; arrived at Lowell at eleven; took my return at two. Went straight to the carpet manufactory but found strangers not admitted; at length I was introduced to the manager, a Scotchman, upon my assuring him that I was in no way connected with such business he took me through the spinning and weaving rooms; a beautiful shearing machine, also the winding effected the same way, the carpets woven by cards as the bed quilts in England; the Brussels from bobbins with weights attached to each thread and tumbling over wires introduced. The rugs done by locks of coloured thread tied into the warp, and then hemp or wadding driven up by the lathe. So extremely hot that I remained in the first shade I came to till near two o’clock. Very many handsome-sized cotton factories, the machinery all turned by the river Merrimack. Work begins at five, then 1/2 hour for breakfast, 3/4 of an hour for dinner, stopping at seven, making 12-3/4 hours each day, and Saturdays the same; the boys and men well dressed, the girls and women in neat gowns and hoods. The bells larger and of different tones as if for worship. The coach promised for two, did not arrive so I came off in another and got to Boston at half past seven. Paid for fare both ways 2-1/2 dollars. This has been one of the most disagreeable hot dusty days I have experienced. Found a letter this morning from James Dean.


Rose a little before 6, took a glass of milk, walked to the bath; found it a dirty poor concern, not more than half a yard deep as the tide was out. Called at Mr. Lee’s, found his son from England who was kind enough to walk with me in the town. We went off to the Athenaeum which is well stored with books. Saw the English Statutes presented by the British Government; then into the News Room at the Exchange; then to the dry dock, a substantial handsome dock; then to the machine shop where they were making blocks, etc. Saw a large ship the Columbus on the stocks, also the Constitution with Jackson’s head cut off; then to the prison where they are occupied in masonry, shoe-making, tailoring, brush-making and cabinet work; the prisoners are not suffered to speak; and they eat their food in their cells. Dined with Mr. Lee: delicious lemonade: several dined within, supposed boarders. Set off to Nahant at 3; a beautiful sail among the numerous islands, saw ten seals on a sandbank. Arrived at 4-1/2, a bold rocky coast; the water dashing between the cliffs. A dispute with another steamer, ours turned about to sternward to get a landing by running between, but the other shied off and prevented a collision. Got back half past seven; a beautiful vine (Isabella) only six years planted and many hundred of branches. Also a Black Hamburgh two years planted and bearing. Took leave of this interesting family, particularly the old gentleman, 76 years of age and quite cheerful; the son resides at Birmingham and I may see him again. On getting to Tremont House I asked for a glass of milk, but was disappointed, it having been drank up. Got a letter from Mr. Lee to Dr. Channing; after getting to bed the fire bells began ringing all over the city.


Rose at five; at breakfast, beefsteak but no milk, so I took black tea cooled down, and diluted by iced water. Another fine morning; mounted the roof of the coach, nearly half way, but it was so warm that I went within. The road very dusty but luckily the wind was favourable; the land poor and stony, good fences on each side of the road; several small factories on the way. Pawtucket an active pleasant town. Arrived in Providence at twelve. Went in the coach to the steamboat, returned to Franklin Hotel; set off to inquire for the Cunliffes. Walked up after dinner; learned that Joseph resided 17 miles off but that he was in town; could not meet with him. William lives about five miles off, and I should have gone to see him but it was so excessively hot that I durst not venture. Bought a pair of cotton stockings for 12 cents, put them on immediately; had another wash, found general perspiration excepting my feet which at some time would have been alarming; lay comfortably on the sofa, fell asleep till six; drank two cups of tea and two glasses of milk with a quantity of huckleberries. Some interesting Jacksonian discussion introduced by one of the gentlemen to the News Room. Took a pleasant walk, much cooler; generally admitted to have been the hottest day they have had; walked along the river, a great number of boys bathing, jumping head foremost from a raft covered with shingles. Found a steamboat leaves every morning for Newport, swallowed another glass of milk and went to bed at nine. The cars eight yards long.


Rose soon after six; walked through the market and up to the mill, whence I had a good view of the hill. Walked into a new chapel building for the Academy. Breakfast at half past seven: on further enquiry for William Cunliffe, a man with a small wagon said he was going that way if I could wait half an hour. Whilst waiting at a store, I saw a curious fly trap consisting of two thin boards with hinges, the inside lined with treacle then suddenly pressed together. Got out of the wagon and walked about a mile, found William and his son George; I was known by the latter but not by his father; walked into the house just by, took some cider then walked into the mill; found the machinery good, about 100 pieces turned out weekly. Then went and bathed, most delightfully warm; then dined on salt beef; took a walk over a beautiful ridge, eating huckleberries and blackberries. Got into William’s chariot and drove to his daughter living near by. She was gone into the wood but was sent for, and I saw four generations. The daughter very kindly enquired after my mother; they pressed me to stop for tea, but we drove on and just got into Providence before dark. Could not feel easy to leave without seeing Joseph, so fixed to take a gig and George was to go with me. Walked to the Newport steamboat and found it sailing at 7 on the Sunday morning. W. Cunliffe looking better and much lustier; seems very well off and happy with his family. Makes 2000 dollars clear profit.


Rose at six. Found G. C. waiting with a horse and gig (to go to visit Joseph); set off 1/4 before seven, arrived soon after 10, above 18 miles: some parts sandy. A neat looking mill. I was quite unknown to G.’s wife and sister, but they were very glad to see me; and spoke much of my father. Joseph came soon after, looking old and quiet, but did not know me and seemed less affected. Walked through the mill which I fear is not doing much good; it is leased, and 2/3rds of the machinery is George’s; it is not filled with looms and is short of water; also there is the expense of a manager which should be done by the sons. Poor quiet Joseph should have taken his brother’s advice, put his money out to interest and with two houses at Providence he might have been comfortable. Five children, all at home. Left at three and called at a cotton mill about three miles off, and found John Makinson, Noah’s eldest son, superintendent, married about a year ago to a pleasant sort of girl, that had worked with and known the family; the house well furnished; she set to and baked bread for tea, this caused us to be later than we intended. Was glad to learn that his mother was still living though she had lately had another stroke. Told that John and Ann the two oldest had not behaved so well to their parents, but was pleased to find a change in John’s views. The last hour was driven in the dark, thereby reminding me of my late dear father, but the horse was a very good one and arrived safe. Found George’s father had been waiting some time, paid 3-1/2 dollars. Bought two other pairs of socks. G. C.’s wife not well, and out of spirits; she seems aware that the concern is not doing well. Saw a snake crossing the road.


Rose before six. Put on my best that I might lose no time in dressing at Newport. A good deal of rain in the night. Taken in a coach to the steamboat. Charged 25 cents for about 100 yards. The weather cleared up and I had a pleasant sail. Found that Dr. Channing resided about five miles from Newport, and was known by everybody. Met the Boston and New York steamer. Stopped at the Eagle Hotel, did not like the old gruff fellow at the hotel, he could not let me have a room but only a bed with five others in the room; this I refused, and was told of another with three beds, but only two likely to be occupied; I was forced to take this, and then set off in quest of an Unitarian chapel. At length one was pointed out, on coming out I enquired the name of the preacher. A stranger from North Carolina; asked if any other Unitarian place of worship; he said this was not Unitarian but Baptist. I said it was Unitarian preaching whatever named. I entered a very neat place and heard part of a sermon by a smart young preacher. This proved Episcopalian; on returning to the Eagle was shown into a very small room with five beds. This I refused and was then shown the other with three. I asked if there was any Unitarian place of worship. I was told not, and found it to be the case. The doctor will hardly be able to make amends for this miserable place. Just before dinner I met with a gentleman I had seen at Saratoga, and took a walk with him. After dinner we went to hear a Presbyterian who preached from John viii, ; the congregation numerous, and singing was congregational, and as usual there was a large proportion of females. Then walked about a mile to a nice little bay where some boys were bathing; I also could not resist, notwithstanding the sharks; the waves were large and the shore sandy; I had a pleasant bathe. After tea we went to an Episcopalian Church, very full, but with 10 women to one man; should have expected their sweethearts would have been numerous. A young man preached, but not with much ability.


Rose at half past five, having slept better than I expected; all the three beds were occupied, and mine was not only small, but resting upon four sticks, and was so built that my head could touch the sloping ceiling from one part. A delightful morning; no letter at the Post Office. Three spitting boxes in the bar 16” x 24”. Set off to visit Dr. Channing at Gibson by the Boston stage; surprised to drive up to the house and greatly disappointed to find the Doctor leaving home by the same stage. I had only just time to give him the letter from Mr. Lee and shake hands with him. I took a walk into the garden then stepped into the house, introduced myself to the lady who proved to be Mrs. Channing and sat some time. Then took a walk into the adjoining wood; met with a stout good-looking youth, asked what relation the doctor was to him, and was told his father, and that he had a sister older, who had gone with his father; expected them to stay a fortnight. Saw a curious bee-hive, and walked again into the house; learned that the Dr. was generally in better health, that he had purposed preaching every other Sunday at Portsmouth, but yesterday had found himself unable, which I had seen noted in the Newport paper; he was engaged about six hours daily at his studies and often a good deal tired. Paid to Dr. C. and back, 75 cents. Left Newport at half past two, fare 5 dollars; at six a dense fog, so that they had to keep sounding and frequently stopped the engines. Took coffee and fish, etc., with about 200 people; walked again some time on deck, still very hazy, so that I might as well go to bed. A gentleman told me of a decent berth at the extreme stern and I soon took possession. In some parts the sea was smooth, then boiling, also large waves.


Awoke several times, and got up at half past five. Found all my clothes quite damp, excepting my trousers which I had placed in my berth, and gave coat, waistcoat and shirt to be dried. Got down my portmanteau and put on other things. Went on deck at six, found we were nearly 30 miles from New York; after some time I went down and found my clothes dry and put on the shirt. On coming up we were passing Hell Gate, a very narrow and rocky passage. Some good country houses: a large new jail. A fine view of the city and shipping; every now and then a jutting wharf about the length of a ship. Arrived at New York at eight; in walking to the Post Office with Mrs. Channing’s letter, I met with Thomas Dean, and got my two letters from Mr. Baker and C. D. Found J. Dean looking thinner. We walked through some auction stores to J. Hulme’s son-in-law; he keeps a very large Book-Stall; hence I entered an auction of watches, afterwards of wine, etc.; then to the Exchange, but soon got tired of standing to read the papers. Read over again my letters; devoured two peaches; was charged 3_d._ T. D. kindly invited me to his house; had purchased one for 11,000 dollars; would have given 12 as he considered it worth 13 or 14 thousand dollars. Found a splendid house; a black waiter; dined in the basement storey; silver forks. James drove me out in a phaeton; called for my portmanteau, and then took me to another part of the city; returned to tea, afterwards went to Niblos Gardens. Had dinner and soon after getting home there was thunder and some rain. Mrs. D. much as when in England, their little girl much indulged; did not see the infant.


Rose at five, set off for Rockaway bathing place. The horse sadly infested with flies which made it bleed in many places. Passed a large swamp, and here first met with that troublesome insect the mosquito. Arrived at 10; a very large hotel containing 186 rooms. Sat down and read with much pleasure the remains of a Bolton Chronicle. Set off to bathe; the sand beautifully white, the breakers very large in consequence of the thunder and wind last night. Could hardly swim but amused myself in standing against the breakers. Troubled with mosquitoes and also a little pain in my ear, which had continued a day or two and prevented me from going on my journey. At half past two music announced dinner, the ladies were accompanied by the gentlemen. Found our places at the entrance into the room being the last comers. A large bill of fare particularly of wines; we had a bottle of claret and I ate a head of corn, and relished it better than before. About 160 persons. After dinner we had a pleasant ramble down the shore talking over old matters at home. Returned to tea, again serenaded by music; then read from English papers; walked in to see them dance: went to bed at half past nine. At noon on the stage coming up one of the horses fell down, overdone with fatigue and heat; got up and fell down several times and died in about half an hour. A limit to their sufferings. Our room N.


Rose at five; a pleasant morning; found the breakers still more than I expected. On the road to Jamaica terribly vexed by mosquitoes; stockings coloured with blood. Several farms for sale; overstocked I guessed with these terrible insects. Got breakfast near Jamaica. Washed and took a little refreshment. Set off in one of the stages and arrived at New York a little before 12; called on R. Crook but did not meet with him. Walked into Broadway was asked 2/7 for cotton gloves; purchased a book of psalm-tunes for 1 dollar. Went to see the great hotel building in Broadway; about 100 men at work, most of them Irish. Went with J. D. through the register office where an account is kept of all the titles (to estates?) and mortgages. Rode to dinner in one of the stages, the usual charge 6_d._ but a quantity of tickets may be purchased at half price. The distance of the stage about two miles; experienced great inconvenience from the excessive itching occasioned by the mosquito bites in the morning. After dinner we set out to see James’s horse; found it not well and no wonder, the stable in a cellar; the stalls narrow; a suffocating spot; then walked across what is called East River to see the dry docks; the ships are placed upon a frame, and then by means of an endless chain wound up on to the shore to be repaired. The tides here seldom vary more than three or four feet; on our return found Jackson and his friend Ingham; they stopped two hours laughing and talking all the time.


Got up at half past six; a good night with only one scratch, though a good deal of inflammation most of the morning. After breakfast played some of the psalm tunes. At 9 set off with J. D. to the end of the island, a very pleasant drive and beautiful opening into the Hudson. Bathed in a rather muddy creek. Pulled an apple on going which we liked, so on returning got a further supply. Some men fishing and others gathering oysters. Got a comfortable dinner; then drove on the other side towards Harlem a fine spacious road.

Many trotters in their sulkies and others driving very fast. Appearance of a storm. Only charged 2 dollars for the horse. Played several psalm tunes. Engaged a vehicle to take me to the steam boat in the morning. Went sadly to bed. Packed up the needful; besides the mosquitoes, there was a little grey insect like a louse that bit very sharply; still itching and swelled from the mosquitoes.


Rose 1/4 before 5; found breakfast not out; got coffee; the wagon not coming. James Dean set off to meet the man; the portmanteau was placed on; drove rapidly down just in time. Got on board the North America, found many hundreds of passengers. Charged to Albany only 50 cents just what I was to pay for being brought to the steamer; an immense steamer, the Captain said 400 or 500 passengers; a much smaller number than usual. A quick way of putting out and taking in passengers: the boat is lowered, they take a long rope and steer to the landing-place, then haul in towards the steamer which scarcely stops. The rope is attached to the end of the helm, which is 4 or 5 yards wide and gives great power, and the helm is always placed in the fore part of the vessel. Saw some fish (sturgeons) jump a yard out of the water.

A piano and cradle on board. Arrived at Catskill half past three; got some excellent cider and bread and butter. Set off to the mountain 1/4 past 4; a chaise near being upset. Fare 1 dollar said to be 13 miles; then a turnpike gate, and arrived at the summit at 1/4 past 8; having been in four hours in one part alternately hot and in another piercingly cold. A beautiful moonlight night; the Hudson River visible; very cold so that we sat round the fire as if it were Christmas.


Rose at half past six, though having rested very ill. In the middle of the night in consequence of the earache and not sleeping, went to the top of the house, and had a sublime view; we appeared to be in the midst of pine trees; the road looked quite narrow; the valley studded with fields and forests; clouds scattered here and there, and the lake glittering in the distance closing up with mountains; on the other side mountains with pines covered to the summit. During the day I had a delightful walk with a very intelligent Frenchman from Washington, to the falls, which are stupendous but short of water; the rock seems to project more than Niagara; the reason is because the upper stratum is hard and the lower soft and crumbling; then walked to the upper part of the mountain above the hotel, and then had decidedly the most magnificent view I ever saw in my life; besides these wonderful prospects there is a constant delightful breeze, so that if I had time and friends I could pass a week very well.

I consented to defer going till four, as only another person was going and he was willing to wait. It began to rain and felt cold like our English summers, and it was very well we got the views this morning, as soon after twelve the rain came on, which determined me to take the stage. Paid 3 dollars to Delhi, 65 miles, 1/2 a dollar for tea and bed. Eleven in the stage and all covered up, but my side. Had some pleasant chat with the people, more particularly an Englishman who had been several years in France. Met again my French friend. Went to bed at 8; heavy rain.


Called up at half past one; raining very hard; only five in the stage; by slipping across got a good place; left at half past two. At five at Cairo, next stage. Ascending the mountain I got up with the driver; fair, and a very extensive view up the valley; several houses on the table part of the mountain.

Got to Wareham 1/4 before 9. Washed and shaved by borrowed tackle. A delightful drive down the mountain; many turns in the road diversifying the view; many pines dying, large tanneries. Morrisville, the last four miles rough road; got to Hobart 10 minutes after 2, most of the last 12 miles rough road; a good many saw mills on the way; the turnpike gates, a ladder let down from the house hardly sufficiently to leave head room. Not much regularity in conveying the mail owing to uncertain state of the roads. Further delay caused by not always dining at the same place. At Bloomville at 1/4 past 4; the last seven miles the valley has been widening. Arrived at Delhi 1/4 before 6. Took my place on to Green; paid 2 dollars 38 cents. Immediately passed over a considerable mountain; a very rough road and a lame horse. Got a basin of milk and a slice of bread which proved a good supper. On setting out I took my seat on the top, but was told by the driver that he had another going with him, but I did not yield, and he put a negro to drive both me and the horses, but it did not do. I was glad to have an opportunity of showing the Americans that I made no distinction.


Passed a very restless night in the coach. At Bainbridge made to wait nearly an hour, then to collect 4 ladies and two men, so that the stage was considered quite full. After breakfast paid 30 cents, also 75 cents for Binghampton on my way to Montrose; could not have a seat by the driver. Found a very intelligent American, he depicts divisions amongst themselves chiefly caused by the ignorant and immoral, especially the Irish; arrived at half past eleven. Paid a dollar to Montrose and set off at once; the morning and scenery delightful, and the company made me not think of sleeping. Left Binghampton at one. Crickets chirping almost at the top of the Catskill Mountains. The vehicle from Binghampton a clumsy concern, but as there was only a boy besides myself I had control over it, as if it were my own though carrying the mail. I walked up the steepest parts and now and then had a chat with the settlers. Partook of some nice blackberries, got to Montrose at 8; very fair travelling considering the mountainous paths we had come over. Find Pike 20 miles off and no stage till the day after to-morrow, so that I might as well have remained at Binghampton another day, but unless there be something interesting, I always find myself most happy when on the wing bringing me nearer home; got tea, and to bed at half past eight, in hopes of getting up the rest I had lost the two and may be the three last nights. Put away the wool from my sore.


Rose soon after seven; found no arrangements made for getting me on to Pike; resolved to go immediately in some way. Informed of a person going 13 miles on the road. At ten he came and a very sensible man I found him; said the bank had registered certain wealthy individuals improperly, and therefore the charter had been refused; this more than the removal of the deposits had injured the credit and business of the country; admitted that there was too much paper money but thought it should have been lessened gradually; Hindle & Co. should have been called to account. The President had no right to renew the deposits without consent of the Senate, and hence their displeasure; the Representatives support him on account of popularity. A most interesting account of his father who had lived 50 years in one house and unwilling to sleep from home. Had 15 children, 8 still living. At the end of 13 miles Hitchcock’s saw-mill; he took me to a farmer who agreed to go on with me about 8 miles further; after travelling some time I stepped out to enquire at a house on the road side for Noah Makinson. “He lives here,” I was told. Immediately Noah appeared looking much thinner and older; did not know me. One of the daughters set off to fetch her mother; in less than two hours she came with her two daughters; on entering she gazed a long time, said she did not know me, and then cried out “Is it Robert?” and almost fainted; she suffered from a difficulty of breathing but soon was better, and we chatted away the evening. A sheep was killed.


Rose at seven. Found Alice better than I expected considering the hurry and fatigue of yesterday, though thin and weak she has much of her old features, not so deaf as I expected; sits a good deal, often smiling. An American breakfast; coffee, beef steaks, eggs, tart and cakes like crumpet, made from buck wheat. The house not large but comfortable; a very large new barn with shippen, stable and granary and a good stock of hay. Had agreed for the same with a neighbour on the following terms, to make the hay and have one half. The house pleasantly situated on the slope of a hill on a good road; nearly 80 acres 30 chains on each side of the road; a good spring of water near the house; seven cows, two horses, pigs, geese and poultry and guinea-hens. The breakfast consists of coffee, bread and butter, eggs, beef or mutton with buck wheat cakes resembling crumpets also blackberry pies and potatoes; nearly the same at dinner, and again at supper with tea. Make their own sugar from the maple; a hole is bored into the trees; a chip placed below to guide the sap into a tub; this is done with about a hundred trees at the beginning of April; a fire place is made in the woods and the pans are hung over by means of long wooden hooks, and the sap is boiled down into sugar, a supply for the year. They make their own candles and soap, the latter from the wood ashes. Went to see many people who appear very comfortably settled. Noah surprised the family by consenting to go with us.


John is married and settled in Rhode Island: Ann a nice spirited girl employed in tailoring and has seen a good deal of society. Mary a most cheerful and pleasing young woman married to a young man Aery Gridley, a carpenter and also farmer, a steady active young man not too good for her. James assists his father but prefers the joiner’s business; Hannah rather lusty, does a good deal in the house and also assists Ann; Martha the youngest, her spine injured in her youth, a very sly little person and says very droll things. Noah often affected when talking of old friends in England; related some grievances of the family not treating him with respect, particularly his two sons. The daughters too fond of visiting and dressing. This evening a neighbour’s dog catches an animal called a woodchuck somewhat resembling a beaver; it is considered good food and indeed is to be prepared for dinner. Mary and her husband came about eight and returned about half past ten. Besides woodchucks they eat the black and grey squirrels, the yellow and striped are not liked; both are killed because they devour the grain, a large cat frequently catches them. Two horses are great favourites with all the family, the best was hurt last Christmas by a cow. They have two waggons.


The breakfast profuse as usual. Went to watch logs being sawn to be burned, chiefly hemlock, a species of pine; other sorts brought home for fires; went out to gather blackberries; all the neighbours very sociable and kind, particularly attentive to Alice when poorly. Nothing like stealing is known; most of the houses without a lock or bolt. Alice was first ill at the end of January, has had difficulty of breathing, but was better; at the end of April had a sort of fit that caused her to be insensible for some time; in June after severe coughing she commenced spitting blood that continued three weeks; violent palpitations of the heart, greatly relieved by digitalis that she still takes; perspires a good deal and one eye is still weaker than the other and is often running; so ill was she that her burial suit was prepared. The battlements of bridges generally coped with wood.


Got both horses to the waggon, and all but the two old folks set off to the Meeting House about 6 miles; rather late, found a great many other horses and waggons, also one or two better looking carriages or as we should say phaetons; there is no shed as in some places so that in winter or wet weather the horses must suffer terribly. The Minister Samuel Henderson, an Irishman, was just beginning the sermon; very orthodoxical and loud; rapped the Universalists as relying upon the mercy of God and forgetting His justice. The singing, German hymns, chiefly done by the choir. After service notice was given of the Lord’s Supper, and those in the centre were requested to go to the sides to make room for the communicants; after the bread was broken it was handed to the deacons, then all arose and a prayer was delivered, the same with the wine. An urgent request that they would not bring the service into disgrace by any immoral conduct; nearly 2 when finished, therefore no service in the afternoon and went and dined at Mary’s, had tea, pies, cakes and cucumbers; then a pleasant chat afterwards and a walk through the orchard; not much fruit in consequence of snow and ice on the 15th of May. On getting back, several neighbours came to sit with us and we chatted till near ten. Alice retired earlier.


After breakfast went with James and Ann to Pike. Rode on the back of the waggon. A pleasant walk; entered one of the stores filled as usual with a great quantity of articles. Walked back with Ann who said a good deal about her father’s temper. I admitted that he was often unreasonable, but as he intended the best they should bear up with it, as it might be possible that a time would come when such conduct would prove the most satisfactory. Ann said her mother was quite the contrary, pleased to see them get on and wished them to have a little company; was told that there were very few round about but what were more or less in their debt, they owed nothing; mentioned a person who has had 300 dollars of Mary’s, and now had 50 belonging to Ann for which they got interest; Ann the prettiest, Mary pleasing and cheerful, Hannah lusty and good tempered, Martha a most droll piece; James appears well disposed but cannot get on with his father; this the case with one brother John but he has left home. Being the last night we had a family chat.


In the morning Mary came to see me off. All the family seemed in sorrow at the thought of my going; continually finding something to send; opened my portmanteau two or three times. Half past eleven brought the stage and I was forced to take my leave, all of us greatly affected, particularly Alice (the mother) and I, that could never expect to see each other again. I shook hands with each one and said to them “God bless you” and then hurried out of the house. Mary came on part of the way. Got to Orrell 1/4 past 1 to await the mail from Oswego; proceeded in 20 minutes; arrived at Towanda half past four; the last 8 miles very disagreeable, warm and dusty. Paid 87-1/2 cents. Met with Mr. Overton an English gentleman who said he would call upon me. He did so, took me to his house, gave me wine then took me to another Englishman Mr. Wandsey a hearer of Dr. Rees. His sister was to accompany Miss Martineau. Paid fare to Berwick 3-1/2 dollars, and 31 cents for tea and bed. Very glad to find such favourable accounts of Mr. Kay and his family. All along the locusts had been destroyed.


Left Towanda 1/4 before six, a misty morning; the road lined with walnut and oak trees and the wild vine; only myself in the stage. Enquired if no mistakes in the charge for bed and tea, said it was the usual charge. Crossed over the Sugar Mountain so called because of so many maples; one part of the walk very disagreeable through ferns and over old trees and all this before breakfast. Arrived at Cherrytown village half past one, without any food for man or beast since setting out, luckily I got a draught of milk; the passengers three young people who had been at a wedding. Had a most excellent breakfast and dinner, good coffee all for 25 cents. This stage 4 horses 21 miles, six times a week, one of the horses has done it 9 years. Not much of a prospect from the summit on account of the trees. A Northumbrian living at the top said America was the place for a poor man; 5 or 6 families came out before him, and only one had failed; and he had property. In some parts ascending the mountain the very worst road I have seen, one of the poor horses lost a shoe, but could have no help till we got to the end, 21 miles: arrived soon after eight, the horse being much less lame than could have been expected. At Columbus our crazy coach had to be girded as it had to go over a very dangerous ridge. We got safe to Berwick at 1/2 past 12, got coffee 25 cents; passage 1-3/4 dollars.


A pleasant ride along the canal and the Susquehanna, free from dust. Got to Northumberland before 10. Large frogs at one part in the canal. Called on Mr. Kay, he had had an illness which prostrated him much and been unable to preach during that time. Had a long and interesting chat with the family, 4 sons and 4 daughters, the eldest are smart girls, one about 24, the other 30, the youngest 16. Dined with them in a very pleasant family way, roasted mutton and Yorkshire pudding. Mrs. K. gave me a note to Dr. Priestley’s grandson at the Bank, and desired me to ask him to tea. Spent the evening at the Kay’s, very nice people, the second daughter very pleasing and difficult to leave, perhaps would have been impossible in a short time. Mr. Priestley joined us.


Met the gentleman I had seen at Montrose. Paid for bed and breakfast, good coffee, 37-1/2 cents, and 2-1/2 dollars to Pottsville. Walked with Mr. Priestley to his grandfather’s grave and also to the house where he died; a beautiful willow planted by the doctor. Spent an hour with Mr. Kay. Left Northumberland at 10, changed horses after 13-1/2 miles. A most delightful morning.


Called at four. Took up a gentleman who proved to be an English Catholic priest, very intelligent and pleasant. Soon got on the railway, a pleasant ride through the forest, got a glass of milk; breakfasted at Tuscarora, 25 cents. Passed Tamaqua, where a Catholic chapel had lately been erected; my companion the minister. Travelled through a narrow path covered with brushwood; came to the summit where an immense mass of coal is worked like an open stone quarry; the coal is taken away on rails to Mauch Chunk and then by canal to Philadelphia, etc., etc. The waggon and cars are let down by one man who can move a drag upon each by means of a connecting rope, and the mules also ride down to draw up the empty waggons. Descended in 45 minutes 40 miles. Mauch Chunk most romantically situated at the foot of the mountains almost overhanging the town. Left my friend the priest. Arrived at Lehigh Gap 1/4 past 2, an interesting drive, changing sides with the canal and river. One of the old greys like that yesterday, made a few false steps. We now left the canal and river; a surly driver, near losing my coat; some walnuts; a good deal of Dutch spoken in this neighbourhood. Arrived at Easton 1/4 past seven. Finding no direct conveyance to Trenton and that the fare to Philadelphia is only one dollar, I have agreed to go to Philadelphia. Paid for supper and bed 50 cents. Got to bed at 8.


Called at half past three; left at four; passed over a bridge of wood suspended by iron chains, took a seat with the driver; a little drizzling rain; the button trees again; apples more plentiful; the drive beautiful along the river (Delaware), high hills on each side; the woods a little tinted; some thorn hedges; a good many walnut trees. Had coffee and pancakes, paid 30 cents. The land generally better cleared and the houses more substantially built. Passed a funeral of a woman who burned herself to death yesterday by smoking. A long range of stabling shut up, and the hotel changed into a private house. The driver said these canals and railways would be the ruin of the country. Most beautiful weeping willows; some of the slender branches hanging down 5 or 6 feet. Passed the race course or rather trotting course; this is generally run by drawing a light high-wheeled sulky. Stopped at the White Swan Hotel, Philadelphia, where the coach stopt; found it to be a good inn but rather too far from the Exchange, etc. After washing and changing my dress I called upon the Masons to know about worship in the evening; went and heard a most excellent sermon by Mr. Furness: He and 2 verse, “Look to Him.” He mentioned the general desire to do well but the difficulty of performance, the character of Christ the most influential; mentioned the perplexity attending the belief in His two natures.


Returned early to bed, and this morning found heavy rain; how extremely fortunate that I have completed my tour in such brilliant weather, not having had occasion for an umbrella since leaving Philadelphia. Borrowed an old ragged umbrella and called at Mr. Hulme’s, found Mr. H. gone to N.Y. and also Mr. Rollanson gone from home. Kindly invited to stop with Mr. H. during my stay at Philadelphia. Called upon Mr. Kay’s son; found him in a large book store; then called upon Mr. Scholfield but not seeing him promised to call at three. Walked to the Exchange and read the English papers, after dinner went and sat three hours with Mr. Scholfield; found him less altered than most of my old acquaintances, he lives with his daughter who is married to a Londoner, named Patten, and carries on the stay or corset business. Mr. S. a very sensible man greatly opposed to Jackson; has some little municipal office; well acquainted with the Crooks, Mrs. Marsden, and others. Had tea with the Masons, and had a good deal of talk about old matters in England. Servetus, a very respectable young man carrying on an extensive blacking trade; the sister a very steady girl had lived some time with Mr. Furness. The old man as eccentric as ever, his wife looking old but cheerful.


Called at Kay’s book store and selected a few books to send to N. M. Then called again upon Ridings; after dinner walked to the wharf and saw a steamer going to N.Y. Observed a good many persons fishing without much success; then to the Exchange news room. Read the account of Mrs. Hardcastle’s death, G. Crompton’s and M. Houghton’s marriage, and Mr. Shepherd made into a Doctor. Then strolled past the Mansion House into Walnut Street and Chesnut Street. Took tea at Mr. Hulme’s, found a younger son who is preparing to practise medicine, also Francis Taylor on his way to N.Y. to see his mother. Met Mr. Rollanson; the younger brother gone to Louisville. Had some nice peaches and melon at supper. Invited to dinner to-morrow which I could not refuse. After the rain the streets, particularly the footpaths and white marble steps appear remarkably clean. Mr. Scholfield says there is a person who has ten thousand peach trees in one orchard, and 4 such orchards.


Called at Mr. Kay’s printing place and found a son of J. Haslam’s. Then called upon the father who is become very gray; the son also is turning gray; he was settled many years at a college at Charleston advantageously, but was obliged to give up on account of health; he has now a small school which is on the increase; a good apparatus; his mother well acquainted with uncle Thomas’s wife, and his father a companion of my uncles and father. Mr. Scholfield called this morning to say that he expected Mr. John Wood at his house to meet me. Selected some more books for N. M.’s family and wrote two letters to N. M., and his daughter Mary. At two dined at Mr. Hulme’s, met another son of Dr. Taylor’s employed at a manufactory. After dinner walked to a private museum; a good collection of birds, shells, etc., also some fine works on natural history with beautiful coloured plates; an immense collection of specimens of plants bequeathed to the institution. A skeleton riding on horseback made ludicrous by a spider’s web resembling a bridle. Thence we visited Mr. Pierpoint’s garden. Took tea at Mr. Scholfield’s but did not see Mr. Wood. Then set off to an election meeting and heard some good speaking; a little monkey not 8 years old smoking a cigar. An attempt to disturb the meeting by a cry of fire and then the engines, but it did not take. Found at the hotel, Ridings, Haslam, Mason, J. Hodkinson also the Newcastle gentleman.


Walked through the market though not market day, a large supply of everything, the butchers in clean shirts and some with smart collars; vegetables of every form and colour, at least ten cart loads of melons six to twenty four inches long. Called upon Mrs. Hughes once Miss Robson, talked about Mrs. Kay, Jeffery Smith, Alice Mason and Esther Scholes, then to the book sale confined to the trade; told young Frank Taylor he would soon make his fortune and then come and spend it in England. On mentioning my ignorance about quills, F. T. said it was a mysterious business and booksellers were often deceived; the same with sealing wax till it was tried. F. T. desired me to send C. D. over and he would show him 10,000 different insects every year. Called again upon the Haslams and found myself invited to spend the evening at Mr. Vaughan’s. Walked through the rooms, sat in Dr. Franklin’s chair and also that of Columbus. Invited to breakfast with Mr. V., asked whether tea or coffee; returned, and spent the evening with the Haslams. Called again at Mr. Hulme’s but Mr. H. had not returned from N.Y. Urged very much to write on my arrival. Mrs. H. desires me to say at the Dean’s foundry, that her son was comfortably settled upon 400 acres of land in Canada; and had children.


Called upon J. Scholfield on my way to Mr. Vaughan’s; found Mr. V. busy writing, spent upwards of an hour most delightfully with Mr. V. and his old acquaintance Mr. De Pontean. I said to the old gentleman they seemed to know each other, he replied, “We have been 50 years trying to find out each other.” Walked to see Dr. Franklin’s grave; by means of a chair I scrambled up the wall and read as follows:

Benjamin and }
Deborah } Franklin.

Found a blind school to be a favourite object with Mr. V., presented ten dollars. Found Mr. Scholfield at the hotel with several pamphlets. He and his son-in-law Patten, and young Moss accompanied me to the steamer. Old Mr. V. met me there and also young Hodkinson. Found it necessary to tear myself away from Philadelphia as the longer I stayed the more difficulty in getting away. Left at 10-1/2, got to Trenton about two, rained most of the way. Finding no stage to Laurenceville engaged a dearborn or covered gig for another 1/4 dollar. Learned on my way that John was gone from home. Found Mr. and Mrs. Bowker, also a young Rollanson nephew of Mr. J. R. at Philadelphia with W. B. to learn farming. Immediately had coffee, then peaches and melons most of the afternoon, then tea and more fruit. A chat and to bed at half past nine. Slept with young Rollanson.


Got up soon after six; rested pretty well. Set off to Trenton to market, purchased a basket of peaches for 20 cents. Had some conversation with a lusty ironmonger, etc., then purchased a little gingerbread and two pair neck laces 3/4 dollars. Drove back another way, part of the road through the forest. Ate some more most delicious melons, set off to Laurenceville Post Office, got the American Farmers’ monthly publication; then called upon Mr. Phillips, a very sensible pleasant gentleman; also Mrs. P. from Philadelphia. After dinner sat under the shade of the trees near the house chatting about home, then walked into the cornfields. Some corn ten to twenty feet high, with ears 12 to 16 inches, then through the orchard, many of the Newtown Pippins and others equally large, the ground covered with fine apples. Mr. B. plucking one off the trees biting a piece throwing it to the ground. The quantity, size, and quality truly surprising; more like a dream than a reality. Then went to see some plowing, met with a serpent about two feet long that jumped into some water. Mr. B. got a large stick and at length poked it out, the sting quite visible, it coiled itself up for a spring; he struck it and a whole frog was found in its belly undigested and yet it was in pursuit of another. Mr. and Mrs. Green’s son and daughter came to spend the evening with us. Mr. G. an old settler, and a Puritan, said a long grace and then we had another melon feast. Mr. B. gave them about a score of very fine ones; left the “Child’s own Book.”


Did not rise until after seven; Mr. B. presented me with tips of Indian arrows for Mr. Baker and C. D. After breakfast Mr. B. and I walked out together, visited the family graveyard 5 or 6 of the old settlers, Brearley buried in 1756, about 50 years of age, and younger branches of the family. Partook of some more melons, truly delicious. Set off to Church, found a nice spacious clean place; a poor respectable audience rigged out as Mr. B. said in their best, the singing chiefly managed by one person in the Walmsley tone; as in all other places not much joined in by the congregation; the prayers simple and unobjectionable, but the sermon very poor, ultra orthodox thing, text 8 Romans, first six verses, Original sin, morality, etc. worse than Pike Presbyterianism, and worse than English Calvinism, Redemption by Christ deferred till next Sunday when the Sacrament will be delivered; notice of two new members having been examined and then admitted. Mr. Axton the minister a man about 30 years old, gives notice of a giving day when all kinds of presents are made. Tea, etc., prepared by the young folks, and the young ladies serve it out; only one service. Engaged to visit at Mr. Clarke’s whose daughter is engaged to Jonathan Bowker, she is a pleasing unaffected person. On returning from Chapel I expressed a very great wish to see a humming bird. Mr. B. said they were often about some flowers near the pump; just coming to the house I observed one not much larger than a large bee, going into one of the red flowers resembling the honeysuckle.


Got up at five; left Laurenceville about six, Mr. B. engaged in writing letters till three o’clock. Mr. B. mentioned a great desire to assist his brother, said L100 for two or three years would enable him to do so; having such favourable accounts from Mr. Hulme and Mr. Walker I promised to send him that sum. Met the young Taylors on the railway, ate some peaches; offered a loan of L100 to F. Taylor but he thankfully declined. Agreed to meet the younger T. at the steamboat at six the following morning. Walked to F. D.’s warehouse and there found another letter from C. D. All well. Wrote a short letter to C. telling them of my return by the Hibernia on the 10th. Spent the evening very pleasantly with the D.’s. Mrs. D. not very well having been obliged to stop suckling her little one. J. D. charged 62 cents for 100 dollars upon all property.


This morning rose soon after five with the intention of going to Poughkeepsie; but there hardly appeared time to get to the steamboat, and a shower of rain settled the matter. Engaged all forenoon in reading the “Bolton Chronicle,” July 5, saw an account of uncle Yates’s death. Walked into the town; visited the great book sale, purchased at Carville another copy of the “American Tourist” for 1-1/2 dollars. Called upon Mr. Crook and walked through his warehouse, a large stock of cotton, woollen blankets, counterpanes and stockings. Found R. Crook going by the Hibernia; walked with James Dean to the Wharf and took my berth in the Hibernia for Liverpool; found the Captain pleasing but not so experienced as Captain S. K. Took dinner at the Franklin House, roasted turkey, bread and potatoes with some apple pie and a glass of water for 9_d._; then called upon a Mr. Butcher from Sheffield at Mr. Bliss’s; took two glassfuls of Madeira, almost tipsy. Bought a razor strop for two dollars; then to J. D. after tea; went to a Mr. Alexander Taylor where Frank was stopping, found him a jovial pleasant man, also Mrs. T. formerly Burton, and sister-in-law to Joseph Wood’s wife, and cousin to William R. Crook, like J. D., converted by his wife; so much for Unitarianism.


Got up at five. Jones’s phaeton came up soon after, he drove me to the steamer Erie, just in time, as usual both boats full; a delightful morning, met several steamboats one towing two boats on each side and one behind. The rocks on the west side very steep and the strata very perpendicular. Paid for passage and breakfast 87-1/2 cents, but unfortunately no milk. About 100 at the first table; saw some sturgeons leap out of the water. The scenery up the Hudson the finest in the neighbourhood of West Point. Very pleasant and quite cool enough. Got to Poughkeepsie at half-past eleven. Found Miss J. and Miss Mary at home in a pleasant house in Union Street, though the scene of the cholera the last two years. After dinner drove through the town to Dr. H.’s garden about four miles; the grounds pretty and the walks delightful along the Hudson. Had another peep at the Hotel on the Catskill Mountain; the Dr. very kind and we spent the evening very pleasantly: Mr. J. looking better than in England and Mary taller, both greatly attached to the old country. Robert is married and living with Mrs. J., and Mrs. R. like all American wives appears delicate. A good deal said against the morals of the poor Americans, no relying on their word, lax habits. Paid for the carriage three dollars.


Rose at seven. Soon after breakfast I visited the cemetery and copied the lines on John Taylor. The morning cool; after another chat went to the steamer with Hudson; we were too soon but I enjoyed the scenery particularly the ingenious management of a sloop. At 1/4 before 12 observed the two boats sailing nearly together. The smaller got in first but persuaded by Hudson I took the larger the Champlain, sailed 5 minutes past 12 racing and betting, as on horses. Paid for passage and dinner 1 dollar. The most romantic part of the Hudson near West Point; one fellow devoured almost more butter at dinner than all Mr. Whitehead’s family for a week. Do not observe many gentlemen’s seats on the banks of the Hudson on the New York side; the opposite is too rocky and precipitous. Observed a funeral supposed to be a negro, as all the attendants excepting the driver of the hearse were people of colour; two of the first appeared to be ministers, both dressed with white cravats; a number on foot after the body, with two coaches filled mostly with females.


James Dean set off early to the warehouse. I walked with Thomas who wished me to speak to his brother lest he should indulge too freely in drink. Walked through the fruit market, found it well supplied, then the fish, found many all alive alivo. A cart load of cods weighed by means of a double steel yard, one below and suspended from the other. The cart suspended by a chain fastened to each axle outside the wheel, and the front of the cart and the other wound up by a capstan. The grapes in the market of a poor sort: no wonder that peaches and melons are preferred. Called at Mr. W. and received but poor accounts of Dr. Marsden who has been worse since he left: thought he had liver complaint and he considered his lungs to be affected. Curious screw docks, eight on each side raise the frame on which the ship is floated. After dinner at the Franklin House, James Dean and I set off to H.; took a ride upon the circular railway, watched them play at nine pins, the bowls returned by means of an inclined wooden conductor into which the balls are put by the person who sets up the pins. Afterwards walked along a beautiful shady road with occasionally a glimpse at the Hudson and the beautiful white sails; then across an embankment over a swamp; along a beautiful road and through the grounds and garden of Mr. King, where we had a most charming view of New York, the Hudson, etc., etc. Could not get tea at either hotel till the usual time; got very good coffee near the theatre, and only charged 19 cents each. Went to the theatre; very full; met Webster, he had seen all our passengers but Mr. Grindrod. Mr. Hamilton was about returning by Quebec, Mr. Cayley stopping with his brother at Toronto.


Called upon R. Wood; met with his wife and two children living in Hebron Street, second floor, 2 rooms connected by folding doors; the one rather smart and the other a kitchen, etc., etc. Bought another copy of Bryant’s “Poems” the other given to Mrs. D. Called upon F. Taylor and agreed to call at Carville on Tuesday morning for letters from Mrs. J. Set off to bathe with James, and Thomas and his wife and daughter and a Miss Jones; a pleasant drive along the shore. Inspected the new fort, no guns mounted, more than a mile very heavy and sandy; took dinner; saw a mosquito net. Approaching the town saw a fire. Called at a garden lately owned by a Frenchman; went to see the fire, found it to be the Presbyterian Chapel in Wall Street. Much difficulty in getting through the street in consequence of the pipes, had to move back three times. Hard driving through Broadway; near running over several persons; once between a car and omnibus the former stopping suddenly. A pleasant chat till half past ten. Mrs. Bliss stopped with the children during Mrs. D.’s absence, but was gone home before we returned.


Set off and heard Mr. Wood; a reasonable sacrifice devoting ourselves at all times to God. A very respectable looking man but short of enunciation. In going met Mr. Theodore Bliss, who informed us of Mrs. B.’s illness; at noon found her worse, the illness to be cholera. Went to the Unitarian Church in Prince’s Street, a gentleman from Carolina not very interesting, heard the Communion Service by Mr. W. all extempore; he breaks the bread which is partly cut, and then distributed by two gentlemen. Both churches are handsome and as usual very neat and uniform; good singing. In the evening James Dean and I took tea with young Crook; the “Isabella” vine with plenty of grapes but hardly ripe, also many peaches. Mrs. C. invisible; the child about the same age as J. D.’s; a good many callers; went with one to hear Dr. Hawkes, an eloquent preacher; the sermon was on “Stand forth,” a large proportion of females, the contrary in all Unitarian places. Called upon Abraham Taylor, saw Miss T. and a Mr. Armitage; got home about eleven. Mr. T. desired me to tell Major Watkins that if politics drive him out of the country, he would receive him and make him as comfortable as possible. Scarcely one obscene word observed throughout the States, not more than two or three.


Mrs. Bliss died yesterday at four. Ill little more than 12 hours. Curious that I should have been saying a day or two before, “What a difference if any of us had lost a friend or relation by the cholera.” Called upon Dr. Griscome and found him an amusing gentleman; could not find Burnes’ Coffee House to see for Cunliffe’s letters, nor Bradnor who gave me the stick. A beautiful promenade near the Castle garden; visited the Museum; a large living serpent also an ant hedgehog; a good collection of stuffed birds besides, and also a cosmorama view of different cities, etc., in Europe. Saw the two Woods, one a pianoforte maker and the other a carrier. Went up to Ted’s. A suit of black lent me to attend Mrs. Bliss’s funeral at four; did not much like the thought of going; apprehensive about Mrs. D. who cannot be persuaded to leave the house; about a dozen attended. Scarves given to the clergyman and doctor, silk gloves to three or four of us. The coffin appeared to be mahogany with a small plate with name, etc., the coffin uncovered and borne to the grave without much order. The service as the Church of England, excepting omitting the chapter from Corinthians. Eight carriages besides the hearse; after interment they separated. Mrs. D. made an effort and came down to tea, and talked over the melancholy affair. Set off after nine to try the American oysters, but did not like them so well as ours, being more insipid. Busy packing up.


Rose half past six; as usual another brilliant morning; Mrs. D. at breakfast. Ann Butcher, her niece will be with them now that Mrs. Bliss is gone. Called upon Bradnor, had great difficulty in buying another copy of “Boy’s Letter Writer.” Mr. Theodore Bliss came to T. D.’s warehouse and accompanied us to the steamer, also Webster and R. Wood, and J. and T. Dean, and Abraham Taylor came with us in the steamer. Lunched, left us at one. Left New York at 11. The day truly delightful; only 7 passengers, dined at 4, but little wind and that not favourable; a shoal of porpoises, 6 and 8 close together. Gave T. D.’s servants two dollars. Am much pleased with the Captain, mate and crew, and also the passengers. The steamer left us at 1 and the pilot at half past ten. Paid for washing 17 pieces including two night caps, 85 cents or 2-1/2_d._ each.


Passed the night pretty well, dreaming rather pleasantly. On getting up felt qualmish and took a little coffee, but was soon forced to part with it. The wind increased with heavy rain so that all of us but Mr. Frankland (a Quaker) became sick. Took a little soup upstairs but did not keep it long. Remained in the small house till eight. I think I would have escaped better but for the sudden rough weather. The Americans reckon to admire ladies of slender make and pale faces. Mrs. Dean said she knew a young healthy blooming robust girl from England, who had recourse to large quantities of vinegar; at the same time girding herself very tight, so that she was now so reduced that she could not suppose that she could live very long. Mrs. Taylor at Poughkeepsie confirmed the same, stating that young ladies stay away from Church if the weather was at all unfavourable, lest they should be considered stout.


Lay in bed till after seven; as I do not like waiting so long for breakfast (9 o’clock). Found we had not progressed much; the morning warm and fine. Sick again. Took a little tea and dry toast with an egg, and found it more disposed to remain with me. Went on deck and was able to read a few of Bryant’s “Poems.” Took for lunch two peaches and three slices of melon; again saw Mother Carey’s chickens. Dined pretty well upon soup, a slice of mutton, a peach pie, two peaches and three slices of melon. Read some more B.’s “Poems,” and also Cobbett’s “Advice to Young Men.” Difference of time between New York and Liverpool 4 hours and 44 minutes: also 4 dollars and 44 cents making our sovereign of twenty shillings.


Rose at half past six, having passed the night comfortably with pleasant dreams, is this occasioned by an empty stomach? Found we had made little way during the night; said to the second mate that we had got on very quickly, but he said they had had a busy time of it, as the wind had been in almost every point. I cannot but think that everything is managed much silenter than with the Britannia; a calm all day, the evening passed very pleasantly in general conversation. Finished reading Bryant’s “Poems,” some very good and highly descriptive. Had some conversation with several Irish women about returning home, afterwards insulted by some of their countrymen. The longitude is discovered best by a good time piece.


Got up at half past six, not having slept so well as when the stomach was empty. Some conversation about Cobbett, most of them against him without knowing much about him. The wind favourable since three o’clock, going 6 to 8 knots an hour. Commenced reading Cobbett’s “Life of Jackson.” Shuffleboard played. Several porpoises seen. A good many pétrels. After lunch a vessel suddenly appeared out of the mist with a X upon it. Supposed to be either a French packet, or one to Philadelphia. Another vessel was seen this morning, another sail seen this evening about 5-1/2. Found two or three slices of melon with a biscuit to be a good lunch.


Passed another good night, and rose at half past six. Found we had been making about 5 knots an hour; three ships in sight; read before breakfast one of Cobbett’s sermons “On hypocrisy.” In the forenoon two sermons from Chalmers’s “Discourses on Commercial Integrity.” One of the steerage passengers read from the Scriptures and commented sensibly, but he was laughed at by some graceless Irishmen. In the afternoon Mr. Hopkins proposed to address the passengers. After reading about the talents he proceeded to speak of the Bible as the oldest and best Book. Paine, he said, had denounced it as a forgery, but various authors had mentioned the N.T. Burnett had quoted Lord Clarendon: the Old Testament was much older and was so called at the time the New Testament was published; the difficulty of procuring a copy before the art of printing, if the best, each should strive to get a copy, also read it and understand it, but above all practice it; not to be compared with a library even extending across the Atlantic, because the one only treated of this world, the other of that to come. Read three more of Channing’s “Sermons,” one fully proving self interest to be the foundation even of our best actions. After tea had a long chat respecting girls, etc. About ten went on deck, a most beautiful moonlight night; a nice breeze which we enjoyed much, after the calm day; more surprising considering the equinox.


Rose about seven; found the wind light but quite favourable. R. C. not a very minute observer. He had never seen the phosphorus light in the sea till last night, though more than fifty days in going out. To-day the same gentleman said he was disappointed with the view from Catskill; but admitted that West Point was rather fine. Mr. Frankland had written home the most glowing account of the scenery. The thermometer to-day 80 degrees; nearly a dead calm all day till ten o’clock. Read a good deal of Cobbett’s “Advice to Young Men.” Felt more languid and rather sickly, such as I experienced now and then during some parts of the hot weather.


Rose at half past six, found us going about six knots an hour, the wind having been favourable since eleven. Finished reading Cobbett’s “Advice to Young Men.” A turtle observed; a fair wind and delightful all day; air and water 76 degrees, which perhaps is the cause of one feeling languid.


Passed another comfortable night; found we had been getting on well all night; the air and water this morning 74 degrees; the wind favourable from 10 o’clock last night; read Ponreau’s “Brief View of the American Constitution”; also the three remaining of Channing’s “Discourses,” the two first, and the two last excellent. Mr. Street mentions a young gentleman from Boston about to marry one of Mr. Woolley’s daughters. Finished the evening by looking at the “Treatise on Singing.”

The shortest passage to Liverpool
15 days 16 hours.
The shortest passage to New York
17 days.
James L. Wilson,


Passed the night as usual; the contrast between this passage and the last truly wonderful; no rolling or pitching; the wind rather less. About noon a sprinkling of rain which increased and the wind diminished. In the evening fair and a calm. Read half of Mrs. Trollope’s “America,” and still consider it not so very bad. What a Tory is R. C. calling Bonaparte a great rogue, allowing him no merit hardly as a military character, violating every treaty, the English always right; when told of B. attending his soldiers ill of the plague, said others might and probably would have done the same. After being baffled in argument, if such assertions deserves to be so-called; he concluded by crying out Church and King, when told that W. Scott only pointed out two or three errors he said he was not a proper Tory; may Toryism ever have such a defender! In the morning he had been decrying the commercial character of the French.


Found the wind improved, more particularly since five o’clock. At seven 8 or 9 knots an hour. A brig bound to the west. Water 71 and air 64 degrees; still in part of the Gulf Stream which the Captain says seldom extends so far north. Passed a French brig at ten; the wind freshened and we took in some sail. About 5 some sail torn by the wind. At three passed another ship and brig nearly together; after dinner a small bird resembling our sparrow though rather larger and with speckled breast. The nearest point of land is at least 200 miles; it fluttered about refusing any food, then flew into the ladies’ cabin and there remained during the evening.

Difference of time two hours from New York.


Passed a more restless night, dreaming of my dear father and sister Mary, and that Charles Darbishire had become grey. After breakfast we passed through an immense flock of gulls, also a little flag attached to a sort of basket, used by the French fishermen to fasten their lines. All night going about 8 or 9 knots. This morning at eight to half past, passed four vessels all in sight at once, several of them brigs, supposed to be French. At 3 twelve more sail, mostly fishing boats; very cold, the thermometer 46 and the water 45.


Dreamed a good deal about my father and William Rothwell, G. Cunliffe and John Bolling, so did not rise till half past 7. Found we had been going all night about 8 knots; the water at seven, 55 degrees, at 9, 65 degrees.

After breakfast the wind gradually lessened, making only about 4 knots; the sails flapping and the ship rolling all the afternoon; particularly between 6 and 10, making it very noisy and disagreeable in the state room; had agreed for Mr. Street to read one of Chalmers’s sermons, “On getting money,” but the creaking noise prevented my hearing. Read three of Cobbett’s sermons, “Bribery,” “Rights of the Poor” and “Unjust Judges,” also the remainder of Mrs. Trollope’s “Description of Niagara.”


Did not rise till eight having not rested very well; also dreamed of my dear father being considered dead and going to be buried, and then coming to life again. Found the wind changed to the south and consequently much warmer; going 10 knots. About 8 or 9 since 10 last night. Air and water 64 degrees. The wind lessened about 4 and continued between 6 and 7 knots. Commenced reading “The Vicar of Wakefield.”


Rose soon after seven; the ship rolling more, so that I had difficulty in shaving. Found that we had been going about ten knots since five, and about eight during the night. After breakfast, we shipped a sea which sprinkled one whilst reading below. Finished the “Vicar of Wakefield.” One of the sails tore down. At one P.M. observed a brig going westerly; the wind heavy and the canvas gradually taken in, till we had only a part of two sails of 1st and 2nd mast; fine waves that broke most beautifully curiously coloured, called “Dear little Kangaroos.”


Rose soon after seven, having passed the night pretty well, excepting dreaming a good deal about travelling. Found the wind still favourable but more north; going about eight knots. Passed a brig this morning. Commenced reading Hamilton’s “Men and Manners in America”; would be very cold but for the sunshine. A good wind all day; sail reduced towards evening in expectation of a gale, but it went off.


Passed a restless night, the ship rolling a good deal; dreaming that my father was at Bury attending one of our religious meetings, wearing one of my ruffled shirts. I found we had been getting on, 8 or 9 knots till about five, since only 5 or 6, but should be thankful having had nearly a week’s good run. About 4 knots all forenoon; at 12 a little more wind with some rain. A sail to the south-east; another brig in sight at 2 o’clock. A few porpoises.


Found the wind south-west and making about ten knots; this since eleven o’clock. Finished the first volume of the “Kentuckians” and read a little in the “Youth’s Letter-Writer.” A fair wind all day, going eleven knots; cold though the wind is south-west.


The wind still favourable and from the south, making us all night about ten knots. The Captain complains of the alterations made in this line of packets, since one of the old captains took a share. The seamen have ten or twelve dollars per month; the Captain is obliged to take a fourth share; a loss if only two or three passengers; six or seven about pay with a fair cargo. This is Captain Wilson’s 97th crossing; only 36 years old; went to sea at fourteen; married about four years ago a French lady at Bordeaux, the father American, with the mother French; two children. A very wet disagreeable day, so that we could not take the usual exercise on deck, and yet tempted to eat more by way of pastime. At dinner one or two Yankees found great fault with my saying “A good deal of factories,” declaring it to be bad English, in which Mr. Frankland also acquiesced, thinking it improper to apply the word “deal” to numbers; a deal of money, but not a deal of guineas. I admitted it might be more elegant, though the other was not inaccurate. (See “Johnson’s Dic.”)


Little or no wind, and that against us all night so that we have made no way. After all it is best to have the calm at night, more especially as we approach the coast where we may expect to meet more ships. Passed a brig going to the east. A number of porpoises, some of the older attended by their young. Read four or five more of Cobbett’s “Sermons.” A good deal of conversation about the New York Banks, assisted by the Yankees who would be ready to condemn the reading of Hamilton. Yesterday at 2 had made 252 miles in 24 hours: 272 the most that was ever done by Captain Wilson.


Did not get up till eight as I had not slept so well in consequence of the ship rolling a good deal. Found we have only been going five or six knots during the night. All forenoon the wind light, not more than 4 knots per hour. Went upon deck after nine and was much amused at seeing the porpoises; some could be heard at a distance pushing through the water and soon pass the ship; others would come close to the vessel sometimes two abreast, then would separate and one come with such force that I thought I could almost feel it hit the vessel. Played at Shuffleboard which is done by sliding circular boards upon nine squares with figures making 15 each way.


Did not rise till eight; a brilliant morning but found as expected, that we had had only light winds and made little progress through the night. A most delightful day, sunshine with fair wind. At five, a cry of “Land,” we instantly went on deck and observed the Irish coast dimly on the horizon. Read the remainder of the “Youth’s Letter Writer,” and also Hamilton’s “Men and Manners,” also Meredith’s “Orations.” Soon after seeing the land I began to think of my late father and wept to think I should see him no more to relate my wonderful adventures. The wind has been favourable all day and improved still more since noon. About half past six we perceived a lighthouse supposed to be at Kinsale.


Rose at six; found we had been going well all night; were then passing some high land called Saltees. Two vessels astern, one inward, the other outward bound. Heard the Captain up several times. Passed Tuskar lighthouse at eight; one or two towers and several white cottages. Passed Holyhead at five o’clock about five miles off. A glorious sail all day till half past five, then the sky assumed a stormy aspect, the clouds dark and flying in different directions. At half past six a lighthouse hoisted us a signal for a pilot. In about fifteen minutes a light was observed which the Captain said was from a pilot’s boat. In 1/4 of an hour after the boat came up and sent off a small boat alongside, when a lusty pilot was at length pulled up into our ship. He brought a newspaper, Whitehaven, 15th July. Immediately the sail was hauled in so that it scarcely moved, though the gale had considerably increased; though a clumsy sort of fellow we all felt easier and no doubt shall sleep better. On coming opposite we hoisted signal 292 which is the number of the Hibernia.


Last night the pilot came into the cabin at half past ten, and reported the gale to have abated. I turned in immediately to sleep on the favourable intelligence. At twelve, the gale again increased but I was unconscious. Rose before seven; found the wind still favourable. Passing Great Orme’s Head; two or three vessels about us, one the Archer that I saw at Quebec, we passed close by. At half past ten a boat came up with four men to assist us in landing. They left Liverpool at twelve and therefore exposed to the gale and all for 17/6. So true as Goldsmith says, “One half the world does not know how the other half lives”; the boat 6-1/2 yards long and only about one foot above the water abaft. Another boat comes alongside; arrived opposite to Prince’s Dock a little before two; was nearly an hour in raising it, and then so long in hauling it into dock that I did not get ashore till half past three, too late to pass the Customs house this evening. The first person I saw on shore known to me was young Crook, then Miss Crook and Mary Ann Marsden. Went to the Crooked Billet and engaged a bed; put the letter into the Liverpool Post Office from Mr. Webster and called with Mr. Bowker’s letter, but found the Aunt gone from home. Spent the evening at Mr. Crook’s.


Changed a 2-3/4 dollars into 11/2; paid my bill at the Crooked Billet, 3/6 for wine, bed and breakfast and servants; went to Custom House; paid for box of insects 1/6, not duty but entrance fee, 1/- for porterage from packet, they wanted much more, 6_d._ for calling a car, the carman asked 3/6 but on refusing he consented to take 2/6; not allowed to enter the yard therefore paid another 6_d._ to the porter, leaving me only 2/6 and the fare to Bolton was 4/-. I looked out for some person I knew. I spoke to a man that I thought was attached to the Bolton Branch, but he did not prove so. Went to the office to desire that I might pay at Bolton; he declined. I asked a lady but she shyed off, and it seemed as if I must stay till the afternoon’s train. Luckily another gentleman who was quite a stranger, said he would give me 5/-, he never lent to strangers. The attendant at the Bolton Branch knew me and I borrowed the money and paid my friend indeed, and should have been glad to have asked him to dinner, but he was somewhat intoxicated. He wrote his name and asked me to call upon him at Birmingham, and enquire for Jack Norton.


I found my sister, her husband and little one with my mother. They had just dined; my father’s absence overpowered me and I could eat little dinner.